It makes him feel good about himself. Positive politeness minimizes the threat to the hearer’s positive face. It also tries to avoid conflicts. Brown and Levinson referred to the function of positive politeness strategies as one of minimizing the threat of an FTA by assuring that the speaker has a positive regard for him or her (1987, p. 75,317). 1.4.3- Negative politeness It is oriented to the addressee’s negative face.
• Positive politeness: Seeks to make a good relationship between parties; respects a person 's need to be liked and understood. Direct speech acts, cursing and dismissing Grice 's maxims can be considered aspects of positive politeness because: • they show an consciousness that the relationship is strong enough to cope with what would normally be considered impolite (in the popular understanding of the term); • they articulate an awareness of the other person 's values, which accomplishes the person 's will to be accepted. Some cultures seem to prefer one of these kinds of politeness over the other. In this way politeness is culturally bound. Being polite means being aware of and admiring the feelings of other people.
Additionally, positive politeness strategies is defined as aimed “to save positive face by demonstrating closeness and solidarity, appealing to friendship, making other people feel good, and emphasizing that both speakers have a common goal” (Cutting, 2008, p. 48). Similarly, Yule (1996) emphasized the notion of solidarity as a positive politeness strategy by which the speaker tends to use positive politeness linguistic forms to reduce the distance and emphasize closeness; the main linguistic resources to achieve solidarity are the use of “personal information, use of nicknames, abusive terms, and shared dialect or slang expressions” (p.
It is defined as “the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself during a particular contact (Ogiermann, 2009: 11). Whereas, Leech (2005: 01-07) named this theory as Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP), which is evident in common linguistic behavior patterns in the performance of polite speech acts such as requests, offers, apologies, and responses to these politely. Accordingly, he introduced the Principle of Politeness (PP) analogous, is a constraint observed in human communicative behavior, influencing us to avoid communicative discord or offence, and maintain communicative concord and entertain mutually incompatible goals. That is, according to him, politeness is an aspect of goal-oriented behavior; i.e. S’s goal in using polite utterance is, in some degree, to uphold the PP, and to communicate that goal to H. Politeness is concerned with avoiding discord and fostering concord, during communication.
Indifference curves show a combination of two goods that provide equal satisfaction to a consumer. They have the following characteristics: They are downward sloping to the right. This clearly indicates that they have a negative slope. This means that when more units of one good in the combination are consumed, less units of the other will be consumed. This occurs only if the level of satisfaction is to remain the same on an indifference curve.
Contrarily, negative politeness is described as functionally minimizing the FTA’s imposition consequences on the addressee. That minimization in the imposition is achieved by showing distance between speaker and hearer, avoiding imposition or presuming, and giving the hearer’s options (Cutting,
Etiquette is the fruit of manners, and it deals directly with kindness, consideration, elegance and style. “Etiquette involves putting others first, but not necessarily putting yourselves down. Etiquette should flow out of a gracious and kind heart and not be rigidly followed like a set of commandments.” (Bickerstaff Glover, n.d.). Etiquette is more realized then caught, and the customs may vary from one culture to another (Bickerstaff Glover,
People who can fulfil those regulation is considered as polite. Thus, the regulations to direct on how one should act is politeness. By applying the principles of politeness in our daily life, we are seen as civilized human beings. It is also deemed to be a strategy or approach to maintain harmony among people. In
According to Grice, conversations adhere to the cooperative principle, which encompasses the principles of quantity, quality, relation, and manner. The principle of quantity states that speakers’ contributions should be as informative as required but not more; the principle of quality states that speakers should say only what they believe to be true; the principle of relation states that speakers’ contributions should be relevant to the discussion; and the principle of manner states that speakers should avoid ambiguity or