Accordingly, the onset of Boko Haram violence is to be blamed onto either the central government or the police as they have failed to exert enough control over their territory. Violence is thus the result of the emasculation of the state . The solution, then, is to bring order back by reinforcing local police control and containing the spread of violence. This was the most popular discourse within Nigeria in 2013 when Goodluck Jonathan launched ‘Operation Zaman Lafiyaas’ (later turned into ‘Operation Lafiya Dole’) against Boko Haram as it provided a justification to police violence and unauthorised killings in the North-East . Although it will be discussed in more length in Chapter Five, one of the many issues with this narrative is that it takes individual agency away from the police forces by depicting them as rule-driven, as the guardians of order always acting on behalf of the central
Lack of public space identification, Ethnic politics in Uganda is related to the lack of a link that seals a common identity and destiny. As I have already mentioned most of them came to power with the help of the coups and the military (MUGAJU, Justus, & J. OLOKA-ONYANGO 2000), in order to survive, many politicians have used the same tricks in the book; they have pitched ethnic groups against each other. Given the determination of the NRM to monopolize power indefinitely, the situation opens the door for methods that lack any democratic pretense (Mwakikagile 2012). The tragedy for the country is that it has emerged out ethnically organized, militaristic and authoritarian which relies on ethnic chauvinism and resists democratization of the state power, because the system of ethnic hegemony survives on state resources. In the same way as slave trade and colonization were facilitated by African collaborators, they have managed to use the system of hegemonic exchange which has been achieved through tribal alliances and
During apartheid, the government was pressured by the international community which wanted apartheid to end. Many international campaigns were enforced on the south African economy which stressed the great extent the international community put on the south African apartheid government to modify the system. To understand everything better we need to first understand what apartheid was and how it originated. Apartheid basically was a system of established racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa and in 1912 black urban and traditional leaders founded the South African native national congress who believed in the opposition of the policies made by the first union of South Africa government which led to an increase in internal resistance.
North vs. South Throughout the years, the United States endured many social, political and economic changes which affected the North and South in many different ways. Discussing these differences, we will notice that they caused a lot of controversy between the colonies that, at times, led to wars. The major political struggles during this period were focused primarily on states’ rights. At a certain point, settlers began to come to the realization that they wanted to become their own country and not be tied to Great Britain. Once the idea began spreading, the British took action by imposing many different laws and taxes upon the colonies.
Due to this, Africans were considered as uncivilized societies that had already psychologically and morally marginalized the people. Not only this, they were also interrupted from the ancient African civilizations and generally ignored the contributions of the continent for world development. Rather Africans have been considered as burden of world development and even after the independence of the continent from the colonization, the condition couldn’t be changed. This has provided the continent for trusteeship program and the Aid seekers since Africans have been considered as backward
In the American society as well, as mentioned before, the American people themselves has no representation in parliament and hence were under the severely oppressive rule of the British government. Therefore as we can see, there was a common need for freedom from the ruling body (“A Comparison of the French Revolution and American Revolution”). This idea that one of the main aims of these revolutions was political freedom, fits with Arendt’s idea of revolution as well hence demonstrating the fact that these were indeed revolutions. On the other hand, one significant difference that is related to the societies that were present is the involvement of various classes of people in the revolutions themselves. The French revolution cut across class boundaries and involved people from all sections from societies (“A Comparison of the French Revolution and American Revolution”).
In Britain’s case the emergence of the abolition society and their campaign to educate the public of England of the true nature of slavery in the colonies, (Davis, 1975) along with shift in economic responsibility amounted to Britain abolishing slavery in the colonies. With France however, though there were pushes from their society of abolitionists, the initial abolition of slavery in 1794 served as a form of risk management due to the fighting going on in Saint Domingue at the time. With Haiti’s independence, this motivated and spurred the abolition movements in the Spanish and Dutch colonies. France’s final abolition of slavery came due to the major loss of Haiti which was a large chunk of their economic power in the West Indies. The abolition of slavery in the West Indies was due to the economic losses that the colonial powers were hoping to avoid with the emergence of even more and possibly successful slave
“If abolitionists did not cause the Civil War, they shaped its meaning.” (4) It was indeed a war of two distinct societies since the country was fragmented into two: the abolitionists versus slave owners. Perhaps it was the greater calling for justice that many in the North wanted to fight, if not for the glory of war itself. Although this maybe the case for many white Americans, it can be said with some level of assurance that African Americans were not fighting because they wanted their names in history books, but because they shared a kinship and a bond wrought by common suffering with their brethren in the South. The war, however, infused the masses with a deep sense of patriotism that the abolitionist movement at times lacked ("Recruits rushed to enlist, expecting a short, glorious war." page
Effects of the Vietnam War on USA Introduction The Vietnam War was one of the few military conflicts which USA had been involved that had been suspended because of unprecedented public unfavorability in the country. Increasing public disobedience and demonstrations erupted after continuous revealing of news related to real situation in Vietnam such as the atrocities committed by USA Armed Forces, and large soldier casualties enhanced the scale of transformation which American society had already been undergoing. For example, Inghram (2006) points out the Vietnam War was one of events in the 1960s, by which civil rights organizations were attempting to gain more rights for African-Americans so that they could be integrated racially into the American public to a great extent. As mentioned above, the impact of the Vietnam War on America is indisputable. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze the influence from various perspectives.
As a result of all this, the majority ethnic group get to control governmental power. In which the power of the state become concentrated in the hands of the majority ethnic (Smith, 2003).Ethnic Fanaticism has been in play in Nigerian politics and those who are the ruling or leading ethnic group try to main status quo and superiority over those lesser and non-influential groups with all means available Which have caused numbers of clashes such as conflict, ethnic crisis, and a clash of interest. The creation of new state after WWII has led to notable numbers of civil wars because of the ethnic clashes in most African countries (Nigeria in particular).in 1963, the first republic of Nigeria happened to experience a breakdown of peace between the 3 main Ethnic groups which eventually lead to its first civil war in 1967. In 1998 the minor ethnic group in the Plateau state of Nigeria was given a chance for equal distribution of resources