When peace failed to come, Liberia spiraled into an extremely bloody civil war. Armon and Carl write that “the outbreak of the Liberian civil war cannot be explained by a single dominant factor. The war grew out of the domestic, socio- economic and political environment of the 1980s.” The civil war lasted for seven years and resulted in mass devastation, including 200,000 casualties and thousands of refugees. The war finally came to an end in 1996, and shortly thereafter, Charles Taylor was appointed president of Liberia. These few years caused damage to the society of Liberia.
The first major skirmish that changed the historical trajectory of the young nation started brewing in 1965 and the following year, discontented young soldiers mostly from the East led by Maj. Kaduna Nzeogwu who at the time felt the civilian government was highly corrupt and inefficient staged a coup on 15 January 1966. It was a bloody strike and the country lost political giants from the North, namely Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (Prime Minister at the time) and Ahmadu Bello (Premier of the northern region) among other prominent politicians from the region. A few others were lost in the south as
According to Gesiye (2003) conflict can be defined as debate, controversy, fights and wars between people or countries. Conflict usually takes place when underprivileged groups, nation and individuals are aiming to increase their share of power and wealth and to adjust to the presiding and main values, norms and believe. According to Galtung (1996) Conflict can be looked at as a structure, attitudes and behaviour. Conflict as a ‘structure’, means the conflict situation, groups have mismatched interests among them. Types of Conflicts 1.
Although Nigeria has now attained liberation, the civil leaders continue to overpower and suspend the human rights of the people to magnify their power. Countries such as Sudan and Zimbabwe have been described to experience server human rights violations daily. Kenya has shocking statics relating to human rights violations in the country. These violations have come about despite the various declarations and charters intended to protect and support human rights in Africa and
Afghanistan has a population of 34.66 million, with a birth rate of 4.65 births per woman. Throughout the years the country suffered through a civil war which has resulted in prolonging many developments to occur within the country. As a result of the Taliban and their power, including the devastating effects on the country, there have been many negative and lasting effects such as the literacy rates between men and woman. During the Taliban takeover, woman’s rights were seen as insignificant, therefore, access to education for women was very difficult to obtain since it was forbidden. This was powered by the Taliban’s belief of gender roles and the ideology that the duty of a woman was to stay home and take care of their family.
The actions of the Barre regime and the subjugation of the Issaq people led to a civil war and the region which is known as Somaliland declared its independence. Gradually Somalia began to deteriorate throughout the 1980’s with what could be seen with an unstable leader who initiated policies that were detrimental to the economy of Somalia and his continuous policy shifts and use of clanism was beginning to break down the state. Siad Barre had ruled Somalia for twenty-one years and this was not without
The rebels claimed that Darfur had suffered decades of marginalization by the Sudanese government and this was further exacerbated by religious and ethnic conflicts (UNAMID, 2015). Essentially there are webs of internal factors which has led to the regions instability, not least the division of North and South Sudan and the South Sudanese civil war, worsening the situation. For more historical background of the crisis see “When Neutrality Is a Sin: The Darfur Crisis and the Crisis of Humanitarian Intervention in Sudan” (Udombana, 2005, 1153). It should be said that part of the insolubility has to do with tribalism, which UNAMID has had to take into account when facilitating peace talks on top of their peacekeeping operation. Two initial attempts were made in response to the deteriorating conditions in Sudan.
More generally, corruption erodes the institutional capacity of government as procedures are disregarded, resources are drain off, and public offices are bought and sold. Conflicts (Intra and Inter State) Intra and inter-state conflicts have been Africa’s most common source of insecurity and loss of lives for several decades. The pattern of intra-state boundaries, religious prejudice and a winner-take-all political culture are responsible for various conflicts in the sub region. Notable conflicts in the sub region are the Liberian civil war (1989-1997) and the Sierra Leonean crises (1990- 2001). At present, there are varying degrees of disturbances in parts of Senegal, Nigeria and Niger.These conflicts have led to death, wanton destruction of property, displacement of entire population and dislocation of social groups thereby hampering sustainable peace in the sub region (Ebon;1999).
There has been two wars, one was in 1996 and the other began in 1998, which left Congo devastated. During the first war, the two neighboring countries Rwanda and Uganda sent their armed forces to invade the then ruler Mobutu Sese Seko(A very corrupt leader)who was overthrown and replaced by Laurent Desire Kabila as the new president. President Kabila changed the name of the country from Zaire to Democratic Republic of Congo. He also managed to push out the Rwandan and Ugandan soldiers out of the country who had helped him gain victory. In 1998, however this Ugandan and Rwandan forces did not want to lose their role in Congo, so they turned against Kabila’s administration hence starting the second Congo war, one which attracted in other African Countries including the likes of Zimbabwe ,Angola, Namibia who were supporting Kabila and Burundi who joined the Rwandans and Ugandans.
The situation in Northern Uganda is an impoverished post conflict region that was confronted with challenges on gender imbalances, intensified by the war that succeeded on immense physical, sexual and psychological violence against women and men. From 1986 to 2007, the region was very much affected by a brutal war between the self - proclaimed 'Lord's Resistance Army' (LRA) and the Uganda People's Defence Forces of the Government of Uganda. The population suffered casualties of irregular warfare, apart from human and arms trafficking, abductions, child sex slavery and loss of men and boys through forced recruitment, but nearly more than a million people were displaced from their ancestral homes by the Government of Uganda and moved to Internally Displaced Persons' (IDPs) camps. Finally, the GoU and LRA signed the Agreement of Accountability and