The Party press merely declared that the eight generals were accused of espionage on behalf of Germany and Japan, anti-party conspiracy, cooperation with Trotsky, and plotting the territorial dismemberment of the USSR. Finally there is the Trial of the Twenty One (including Bukharin) in March 1938. The defendants were charged with the usual combination of treason, espionage, diversion, terrorism and wrecking as said in (Scales, Diann, "Stalin and the purges"). One of the men on trial here was head of the NKVD, Henry Yagoda. The NKVD was how stalin was able to arrest so many people.
The second Red Scare was a time period where government officials were questioned whether they had Communist affiliations. To eradicate the security threats in the government, President Truman issued Executive Order 9835 to search out “infiltration of disloyal persons.” This action caused the investigation of people like Alger Hiss and other suspected Communists. The government along with the citizens set up effective ways, Blacklists, to bar Communists from getting hired for work. In 1950, Red Channels, a book that exposed 151 writers, actors, musicians, and other radio and television entertainers as Communists, was published. This book completely devastated the people on the list and placed these people on Blacklists.
Arthur Miller based his piece entitled “the Crucible” on the Terror Campaign that was led by the United States to demonize USSR and other Countries who are exercising communism during the Cold war. Religion affects every part of life, but it is the religion where there are constrictions that leads to the difficulty of managing emotions such as rage, jealousy, or resentment that had led to interpersonal arguments and grudges over property, religious offices, and sexual behaviour that have generated to rise underneath the theocratic surface. These had caused a great pressure that was combined with fear about supernatural forces, resulted to a mania of the witch trials. 250 years ago, things like this has been happening for years, The Crucible was just a manifestation of McCarthyism during the Cold War. It gives us the emphasis of looking back in the past so that we will know the mistakes that had been occurring due to the misjudgement of authorities and to ensure that it does not happen again..
The society in the novel directly mirrors the societies around Orwell, where oppression was a reality for instance in Spain, Germany, the Soviet Union and many other countries, where the governments kept an iron fist around its citizens. Orwell loathed the politics of the leaders he saw rise to power. Orwell was a Social Democrat and an anarchist sympathiser. Orwell’s life was composed of the most politically interesting and tumultuous years in Europe. He witnessed the atrocities of the Soviet Union, the rise and fall of the fascist dictatorships of Mussolini-Italy, Hitler 's Germany and Franco’s Spain, Orwell even contributed his efforts to the Spanish civil war, siding with the Anarchist.
The Play The Crucible written by Arthur Miller, is a book that explains the salem witch trials and how it relates to the cold war. During the cold war and the red scare everybody was scared that they were gonna get tried for being a communist. Everybody was scared in the crucible also. Arthur Miller explained the relationship really good. He used many different satirical devices, such as parody, incongruity and exaggeration.
Response to Senator McCarthy’s “Enemies From Within Speech” With anti-communism being the dominant political issue during the Cold War, hysteria and paranoia spread throughout the minds of Americans. The “Enemies From Within Speech” delivered at Wheeling, West Virginia in 1950 by Senator Joseph McCarthy focused on worsening that national fear. Senator McCarthy used ethos, metaphor, and hyperbole to create the notion of disloyalty within the federal government. In order to persuade the American public in a convincing way, Senator McCarthy appeals to their ethics. He indirectly inserts an Abraham Lincoln quote in his speech and refers to him as “one of our outstanding historical figures.” McCarthy continues to mention Lincoln, stating that he would have been satisfied with the reaction by Americans to communist infiltration of the
In Lameman’s terms, it was a method to expose supposed communists who infiltrated the United States. McCarthy was notorious for making false allegations and accusations to attract attention to his policy, brainwashing Americans into believing their country was being intruded by communists. A large majority of McCarthy’s accusations were backed up by little or next to no evidence, “HUAC’s circuslike investigations and unproved accusations left a trail of shattered reputations and broken lives”. This was seen especially in the case of Air Force Reserve Milo Radulovich, who was discharged from the force due to supposedly having family who were Communist sympathizers. When trialled, a sealed envelope was present with supposed evidence but was never opened.
Abstract: This article presents the impacts of political conflicts on The Crucible in common and literature in general by revealing universality of human sufferings at the hands of the political regimes. Allegedly, the so called communist writers have been considered as mere puppets fulfilling the foreign agendas, by the ‘House of Representatives’ Committee on Un American Activities’, in the USA during the Cold War. Retaliation from the writer’s side is seen allegorically as in the form of The Crucible, thus, representing McCarthyism as a mere repetition of the Salem’s Witch Trials, proving its atrocities over the innocent. Key Words: Crucible, Allegory, Communism, Destabilization, Universality, Retaliation, McCarthyism. Introduction The crucible is a universally acknowledged play written by the American Playwright ‘Arthur Miller’.
The Great Purge of Russia Communism is when property is publicly owned and people are paid according to their abilities. Joseph Stalin was the communist leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and a paranoid leader. He initiated the Great Purge because he feared people were plotting to remove him from power. During the Purge, his agents would torture the accused, and over half a million people would die. An explanation of how the accused died, who was targeted, and who carried out the killings will enable one to understand who was responsible and how they carried out this event.
George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four is a pessimistic and dystopian novel. Throughout the novel we are shown a sense of oppression and totalitarianism. In the beginning of the novel Winston, who has a strong sense of individuality rebels against Big brother, who is the dictating party. He writes in big words in his diary “DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER.”(Orwell 2013: 36-37) At the end of the novel the party tortures and brainwashes Winston into accepting the ideals of the party. This shows what a horrific world Winston lives in.
According to Commager, among those who are really disloyal are “Those who for selfish and private purposes stir up national antagonisms” (Foner 240), i.e. those politicians and public figures who cause national panic and an animosity towards a certain group. At this point in history, those at the wrong end of the stick were communists, for the anticommunist crusade was in full swing during the Cold War. Ironically, in 1950 three years after “Who is Loyal to America?” was published, Senator Joseph McCarthy delivered his infamous speech claiming that the United States State Department was infested with communists, sparking an age of McCarthyism and bringing about the most ruthless times of the anticommunism crusade. Those who did not conform
Two parallel events have shown that Americans are prone to a culture of fear and oppression when face with acts of terror. This culture of fear invaded the minds of government and the people during the first Red Scare and after the terrorist attacks of 9/11 with similar results. Due process and civil liberties were attacked in favor protecting the country. The people blindly followed as the government instituted new laws and policies that encroached on personal freedoms. In the first Red Scare of 1919-1920, the government was reacting to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and the heightened nationalism of World War 1.
Federal judges, especially Judge Irving Kaufman, were generally harsh when ruling against Communists, viewing their crimes as “aggression against free men everywhere” and “worse than murder.” The mixed attitudes towards the threat of communism stretched all the way up to the highest court in the land. In the case of Dennis et al. v. United States, the head of the court at the time, Chief Justice Fred Vinson maintained that in the case of the dangers of communism, it would be extremely foolish for anyone not to “convict unless they found that petitioners intended to overthrow the Government ‘as speedily as circumstances would permit.’” The Chief Justice severely narrowed the interpretation of the Clear and Present Danger Test to point of almost nonexistence in regards to Communists, stating that no attempt to overthrow the government did not mean “that there [wasn’t] a group that was ready to make the attempt.” He expresses the need for the Government to preemptively act against any possible communist attack that could occur. In the same case however, Justice Hugo Black took a very different approach to interpreting the law surrounding the case. Justice Black in his written dissent outlined the crimes that were and were not being committed, and plainly explained that the charges were unconstitutional under the rights given to all American presidents in the First
In a news article published during the Red Scare, the author describes the Communist red flag as symbolizing “defiance of law, order, and constitutional government. It is an insult to the stars and stripes.” It also states, “There is no room in this country for any flag but our own.” (source) The article goes on to say that the federal government must do whatever it takes to eradicate any forms of communism. The author says that perhaps many citizens may be drawn to Communist ideology if the social injustices become more prevalent, and urges the readers to look into the problems of Communist civilizations. This article is an example of how many felt during the Red Scare and Cold War in regards to communism. It shows that people felt a collapse
The Cold War had disconnected and slandered Soviets in American culture. The political witch-chase which occurred under the lead of Senator McCarthy imprisoned many suspected Communist foes for simply practicing their First Amendment rights to the right to speak freely and opportunity of the press. Americans got to fear doing anything that may make them the objectives of Federal examination by associations like the House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). Daily paper editors and book writers became perplexed of distributed articles condemning of the administration in apprehension that they may be blamed for being Communist sympathizers and put in prison. A well known political toon from the 1950s shows Senator McCarthy stifling the Torch of Liberty.