(Woolf, Aron, & Council, 2013) Public health can be affected by the environment through physical exposures, such as unhealthy water supply. The effects of the human physical exposure to the environment are mainly occurred by particulate matter like liquid droplet in aerosol form, and solid particles which can lead to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity
Sustainability is the property of biological systems to remain diverse and productive indefinitely. Basically, if a thing or an activity is sustainable, it means that it’s not been completely exhausted of all of its resources. Land for instance, land is sustainable because even if they strip it for coal, they can still reuse it to put a house on, maybe even plant crops. Sustainability is broadly described as something that can maintain itself. Land, forest, and wetlands are often good examples of sustainability because they remain to diverse and produce over time.
1.1 Introduction Building sectors contribute mainly the negative impact on the environment, consuming 32% of the world’s resources, counting 12% of the world’s fresh water and 40% of solid waste cast-off in developed countries and for more than 40% of the world’s total primary energy are used (Sustainable Built Environments, 2007). Consequently, buildings are one of the biggest energy consumptions in the world. It also produces 40% of material waste going to landfill, 24% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and 40% of air emissions (Dery & Sanwu, 2013). Sustainability is the one of the most important ways of people living. The choices and make a way of human's living spaces and activities for food, housing, entertainment, work and
While green technologies are not sufficiently proven, (Barnes, 2012). The new technologies that are implemented, they results in a great investment in a long-term by reducing maintenance and operation cost. Green buildings are built for a long-term use, and they are environmental friendly and built for economic benefit. Buildings plays a major role in harming the environment with pollution, therefore green buildings reduces this negative impact. (Angrisano, 2012 page 25) also supported green buildings, “As early as 1993, in an extensive evaluation of companies is UK and Europe, Hodgkinson (1993) notes that businesses increasingly want their flagship buildings to present an image of environmental friendliness in terms of energy efficiency, the use of building materials, and the impact on the wider environment.” Companies can also have a good relationship with the environment by constructing efficient buildings that are environmental friendly.
INTRODUCTION The current practice of constructing buildings does not focus much on the external societal costs. The purpose of sustainable architecture is to construct a building that is comfortable for the occupants, has very less negative impact upon the environment, uses the natural resources efficiently and is long lasting. With the concept of sustainability getting popular, there are tools and information available to design a sustainable architecture. The construction sector produces a lot of waste such as greenhouse gases, water pollutants and solid wastes. This has a very adverse impact on the planet and changes the natural cycle in a negative manner.
The greenhouse gases are responsible for this effect - carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons. “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: • the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and • the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organisation on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.” (Brundtland Report) move this from
It can also affect local population who rely on the forest for food and resources. Trees and plants also play an important role in the water cycle absorbing water and releasing it as vapor to the atmosphere, trees can help clean polluted water too. Soil erosion is also a problem associated with deforestation since the soil without trees to adhere to it, erosion occurs and rivers sweep the
Extensive use of energy in the building sector is one of the reasons of climate change. Advancements in technology have led an approach in design dependent upon excessive energy consumption. Industrialised building methods are based on an extensive use of high-energy materials, such as cement, aluminium, plastics, steel and concrete. Besides environmental problems, on a large scale use of new and synthetic building materials causes serious health problems (Coch, 1998; Jacobsen, 2009). Annually, the building sector accounts for 40% of global energy use and the residential sector is responsible for nearly 30% energy use (UNEP, 2007).
In recent years, climate change has become one of the most concern for our planet as it impacts on the future development of both the developing and developed countries. According to Stanton, Ackerman & Resende (2009), climate change involves components of society and economy. In detail, Stern (2006) shows that human activity including population growth, agricultural and industrial investment is causing global warming, with environmental pollution, water scarcity and land degradation (especially deforestation). In the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) (1992), many governments and scientists identified that it was the biggest issue for the future development of the world for decades. In the research of the World