Oxo synthesis and aldol condensation are chemical synthesis route, both of which use petroleum as the raw materials, and thus need a large investment and have strict technical equipment requirements. The biological fermentation of butanol from renewable resources (biomass) is generally carried out by C. acetobutylicum under control anaerobic conditions, with butanol, acetone, and ethanol as the main products at a ratio of approximately 6:3:1, and this process is referred as ABE
In brief, bioremediation is the process of decontaminating and detoxifying soil and water. As mentioned earlier, one of the prime characteristics of pseudomonas is that it can break complex compounds like hydrocrarbons. This is applied in bioremediation processes whereby complex compounds in the soil are broken down into gasses like carbon dioxide or into less soluble compounds (Wasi, Tabrez & Ahmad, 2013). This area has been researched a lot because it has a lot of potential and addresses global environmental concerns. The Pseudomonas fluorescens strain are quite effective in the bioremediation of toxicants like phenols, pesticides and heavy metals.
Chromium (Cr) is one of the known environmental toxic pollutants in the world which is from group VIII element of the first transition series and has a hard brittle gray transition metal with atomic number 24 and relative atomic mass 51.99 g/mol. Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil. It can exit in several different forms and the most common forms are chromium, chromium (III) and chromium (IV). The major industrial application of chromium include the processes for making steel, chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning operations, and wood preserving (Guertin, 2004). According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR, (2012) Chromium can be found in air, soil, and water after release from the manufacture, use, disposal of chromium-based products, and during the manufacturing process.
CML103 - Term paper Methanol Synthesis Industrial process/chemical synthesized: Today in industries, generally the basis for the manufacture of methanol is synthesis gas (normally called as syn gas). Syn gas is a mixture of carbon-monoxideand hydrogen. By syn gas :- For the production of methanol to be independent of feedstock material, the three steps that can be followed are :- Syn gas preparation, Methanol synthesis and, Methanol purification that contain the reactions given below a.) CO (g) + 2H2 (g) CH3OH (g) H25oC = -90.79 KJ/mol b.) CO2 (g) + 3H2 (g) CH3OH(g) + H2O (g) H25oC = -11.90 KJ/mol c.) CO2 (g) + H2 (g) CO (g) + H2O (g) H25oC = 41.01 KJ/mol The above three given chemical reactions are reversible reactions that is why we must have to control the temp., pressure and syngas mixture for the production of intermediate or products.
Molybdenum was separated with alkylphosphonic acid PC-88A by solvent extraction method, from the leach liquor containing copper, rhenium and iron among other impurities. The extraction efficiency of molybdenum was about 96% at pH 0.8 with zero co-extraction of other metals. The loaded organic was stripped with ammonia aqueous solution. One extraction stage and two stripping stages were required for the enrichment of Mo
Polyester is synthetic fiber which mainly derive organic chemical compound from coal, air, water and petroleum and have the ester linkage. According to How (2015), the chemical reaction between an acid and alcohol formed polyester where a combination of two or more molecules form large molecule whose the structure repeats throughout its length. Researched by Smith (n.d) mentioned that production of polyester is by the chemical reaction of ethylene glycol with either terephthalic acid or its methyl ester in the presence of antimony catalyst to produce initially the monomer and low molecular mass oligomers. i. Starting from the acid: Direct esterification reaction.
Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through cellular respiration and can then be used by plants during photosynthesis. Decomposition is when carbon dioxide is given off when organisms die. Decomposers break down the dead matter and carbon compounds are released into the soil. These compounds can sometimes turn into fossil fuels which
The nature of aquatic systems is in a very delicate balance that is easily altered when chemicals and nutrients are added to the water. One example of this are the Cladophora, which are attached green algae in Lake Ontario. It grows during the summer and lives on nutrients such as phosphorous that make their way into both naturally and through pollution in the form of soaps and fertilizers . The more pollution that flows into Lake Ontario the faster the decline in aquatic health. These contaminants that flow into the water system effect the food web to a large extent.
Exploration, transportation, and exploitation of crude oil can cause marine and terrestrial oil pollution. Oil spill is harmfull for marine environment. Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in gasoline are the examples of heavy metal that are usually contained in gasoline and it can be stick and make soil is contaminant. Thus, the industrial waste needs a
2005), biocompatible (Zinn et al. 2001; Hazer and Steinbuchel 2007) and are produced by bacterial fermentation using renewable resources. Hence PHA has potential as alternative material for conventional petrochemical-based plastics. Biobased materials such as polynucleotides, polyamides, polysaccharides, polyoxoesters,