1. Introduction Electrocoagulation is a electrochemical process in which floc of metallic hydroxides are generated within the effluent, which to be treated, by electrodissolution of anodes. Compared with flocculation process and chemical coagulation, electrocoagulation (EC) has no of advantages, such as removal of the smallest colloidal particles. Compare to conventional coagulation process, Less amount of sludge is generated during EC process. Excessively addition of coagulants can be avoided by using EC, due to the generation of the coagulants by electro oxidation of a sacrificial anode.
It has been the second largest industrial pollutant after the agricultural industry because of the voluminous amounts of water and chemicals used in manufacturing. Although many of these chemicals are carcinogens, still a lot of information is not known of the over 2,000 chemicals used in processing textiles. A comprehensive classification of all chemicals are needed. The textile industry has faced a large amount of criticism and pressure regarding the environmental waste of solid, air and water pollutants. In the manual developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on the “Pollution Prevention in the Textile Industry” 1996, the report gives a comprehensive overview of documented information on pollution prevention recycling practices for the textile industry.
Production of chemicals using electrolysis By Grace Olivia Robinson What is electrolysis? Electrolysis is a process that uses electricity to break up elements and compounds. Using a negatively charged electrode called a cathode and a positively charged electrode called an anode an electric current is passed through a liquid solution containing ions, this separates the naturally occurring elements in the solution. Where is electrolysis used? Electrolysis is used in a variety of different industries for different things.
Adding to the poor wastewater quality is the fact that while 80% of natural dyes stay on the fabric, while about 20% become waste. More generally, natural dyeing requires large quantities of water. Similarly, synthetic dyeing also uses considerable amounts of water. Together, up to 9 trillion gallons of water are used annually, sometimes leaving little or no water for other uses. For example, dyeing houses in heavily populated countries, India and China are notorious for exhausting local water supplies.
As global population increases rapidly, the demand for food increases as well, which in turn, leads to a steep rise in agricultural activities to meet the growing need for food, to feed more of the global population. However, agricultural activities have been proven to pollute water resources. Richard (2015) noted that Agricultural activities account for 53% of water pollution incidents during the years 2010 to 2012. As technology advances, fertilizers and pesticides are easily available, and also more potent in enhancing plant growth and keeping away pests. These fertilizers and pesticides that are used to speed up the growth of these crops are not disposed of properly, and pollute water resources when the pesticides or fertilizers are disposed into the water resources.
Water pollution start long time ago on the industries, and know in days we are still contaminating water. In the article National Geographic Water pollution by Greg Girard explains “The industrial revolution of the mid-19th Century Introduced new sources of water pollution. By the middle of the 20th century, the effects of this changes were beginning to be felt in countries around the world.’’ In this quote Greg explains how this problem has been in here since long time and how humans start it. Do you really know what are you drinking and how do you know if your water is contaminated. Well often we don't know what chemicals are we drinking because we can not see them.
It is estimated that about 1-2% in the production phase (about 40-65 L of textile effluent per kg of produced cloth (4-6) and 1-10% in the use phase can be discharged in the environment. Also, textile wastewater contains high suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, heat and chemicals such as salts as well as high color (7, 8). The synthetic dyes have a complex aromatic structure that cause them increasingly resistant to biodegradation and stable (9-11). Thus, dye wastewater are potentially carcinogen and toxic for the environments (3, 12). Therefore, synthetic dyes can create adverse effects on the environment as well as health.
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the Study According to Bothner, Buchholtz, Brink and Manheim (1998) contamination of water supplies by industrial waste is as a result of various types of industrial processes and disposal practices. According to the source, industries that use large amounts of water for processing have the potential to pollute or contaminate waterways through the discharge of their waste into streams and rivers, or by run-off and seepage of stored wastes into nearby water sources. Other disposal practices which cause water contamination include deep well injection and improper disposal of wastes in surface impoundments. Industrial waste consists of numbers of both organic and inorganic substances. Examples of organic wastes include pesticide residues, solvents and cleaning fluids, dissolved residue from fruits and vegetables, lignin from pulp and paper to name a few.
The ecosystem is suffering from the water use in various industrial processes that comes from the toxic chemical and also from heavy metals and even the radioactive sludge, when they use these kind of mineral they polluted the water because it thrown into the ocean or maybe other water bodies without any treatment, so this process is bad and unhealthy for human and agricultural use ! . The second effect is really a horrible, believe it or not ! It can be on the water for many decades!! , the radioactive sludge at the bottom of the water bodies can remain a highly radioactive , so this process can lead to a serious health risk for people living nearby.