The article written by NOAA, the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration. This they are a government organization part of the US Department of Commerce. This article is up to date, it was last revised on January 29th 2018. This article is about why we made oil tankers switch from a single hull to a double hull. It discusses the Prince William Sound oil spill that lead to the double hull initiative.
Estuaries are semi-enclosed coastal bodies of water, located at the interface between land and ocean, where seawater is measurably diluted by the inflow of fresh water (Pritchard 1967; Attrill and Rundle 2002; Wolanski 2007). The mixing of fresh water and sea water in the estuarine systems creates strong gradients of salinity, turbidity and concentration of bioactive elements, while, at the same time, a number of biological processes also acts at different time scales. Coastal waters, including estuaries and near shore oceanic environments, are among the most highly productive areas in the world. However, several man made changes have occurred in this sensitive ecological system in recent years, which affect the general hydrographic parameters
The partners are required to establish an environmental management system. Particularly for raw materials, the company makes it a rule for business partners to acquire external certification of their environmental management system such as ISO 14001 (Annualreport, 2012). In 2007, Toyota planted trees around its manufacturing sites. Furthermore; the company installed auto plants world’s largest solar power system and a special paint that breaks down nitrogen and sulphur oxide coats for the exterior walls of the factory. These actions are taken to reduce the plant’s CO’2 emissions by 35% Toyota realizes that its industries can pollute the environment.
Name: Ng Xin Yi ID number: I14005408 Tittle: Acid precipitation and ocean acidification threaten the environment. Introduction Ocean have maintained stable pH level ten million years ago. However, the pH value of ocean waters has drop year by year since the beginning of industry evolution. The impact on beginning of industry evolution lead to releasing billion tons of carbon dioxide gas and some other greenhouse gases into Earth 's atmosphere. The release of excessive carbon dioxide gas has been absorb over time by the ocean.
Normally, the ocean is included in a carbon cycle, where its doing a sink and stores a large percentage of an Earth 's total carbon.The atmosphere and ocean they make a contact with one another, CO2 is transferred in these two, particularly from the atmosphere to an ocean 's surface until they will arrived to an equilibrium stage which can take to an year to complete it. When the atmospheric Carbondioxide liquefies into ocean, so it will reacts with water through a sequence of steps to form an bicarbonate ion. In the ocean, about a 90 percent of all the inorganic carbon will in the bicarbonate state , with the 9 percent as an carbonate ion and the latter one percent dissolved in CO2. However as concentration
Marine fouling is an undesirable accumulation of biotic and abiotic depositions on a submerged engineered surface in sea water. Deposits of abiotic materials such as organic and inorganic substances called molecular fouling and deposits of biotic molecules such as micro and macro organisms known as biofouling. Both the fouling on engineered structures in the marine environment is a serious issue in the entire world. Definition Fouling can be defined as an undesirable accumulation of adsorption, colonisation, and development of abiotic materials and biotic materials on submerged or immersed structures (Clare, 1996 and Callow, 1996). Stages of fouling There are three major stages in the fouling process i.e.
This regulation was set down after the oil spill of Erika, an oil tanker that sunk in 1999. Basically, if an oil tanker have a double hull. All of the oil will be carried in the inside hull and remained intact if there was a collision, while the outside hull would take the impact of the collision (Rabalais, “Oil in the ocean”,eLibrary). Another example of regulation have been set up by the two major economic power in the world, United States and United Kingdom. They have set regulation for any ship that traveled into their water to only have 1000 part-per-minute of sulfur content.
“At this rate, we would expect nearly one ton of plastic for every three tons of fish in our oceans by 2025,” says Nicholas Mallos, director of Ocean Conservancy marine debris program. Ocean pollution is a very evident problem. There are two types of pollution, nonpoint source pollution, and point source pollution. Nonpoint source pollution is pollution that is a result of runoff, which comes from smaller sources and point source pollution is pollution coming from a single source, such as an oil spill. Point source pollution has a larger impact on the ocean compared to nonpoint source pollution but thankfully it occurs less.
These gasses destroy the ozone layer and absorb heat respectively. These types of gasses are called greenhouse gasses and the increase in temperature as a result of increases in these greenhouse gasses is called global warming. Global warming causes man made climate change; which is any change in long term weather patterns, melting of global ice reserves, and an increase in land and ocean temperature. High ocean temperatures, high acidity; which is low ph level, mechanical destruction and sedimentation are factors which destroy coral reefs. Hich carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere traps heat which is transferred to the ocean; it is also absorbed into the ocen, which causes the ocean to become more acidic.
Climate Change is a big issue because it is a global issue and the cooperation of every nation is a must. Climate change has a great contribution in flooding around the world. It is because floods are due to excessive or heavy rainfall that comes from storm through the cause of the abnormal weather condition or what they called climate change. Philippines is located along the Pacific region near the Equator where cyclones which is prone to tropical cyclones and storms. Around 19 tropical cyclones or storms enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility in a typical year and half of these make landfall making the country very susceptible to floods.