3.Mechanism of threonine protease Threonine proteases use the secondary alcohol of their N-terminal threonine as a nucleophile to perform catalysis. ( Brannigan,etal1995) The threonine must be N-terminal since the terminal amine of the same residue acts as a general base by polarising an ordered water which deprotonates the alcohol to increase its reactivity as a nucleophile. ( Ekici, OD 2008) Catalysis takes place in two
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
Squalene undergoes a two-step cyclization to yield lanosterol catalyzed by sequalene mono-oxygenase and sequalene 2, 3 epoxidase enzymes. Sequalene mono oxygenase is the second committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis and lead to the formation squalene 2, 3 epoxide. This enzymatic reaction require supernatant protein factor (SPF) and NADPH as a cofactor to introduce molecular oxygen as an epoxide at the 2, 3 position of squalene. The activity of supernatant protein factor itself is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation (Singh et al., 2003). Through a series of 19 additiona lreactions, lanosterol is converted to cholesterol.
Benzyne Formation and the Diels-Alder Reaction Preparation of 1,2,3,4 Tetraphenylnaphthalene Aubree Edwards Purpose: 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylnaphthalene is prepared by first producing benzyne via the unstable diazonium salt. Then tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and benzyne undergo a diels-alder reaction to create 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylnaphthalene. Reactions: Procedure: The reaction mixture was created. Tetraphenylcyclopentadienone (0.1197g, 0.3113 mmol) a black solid powder, anthranilic acid ( 0.0482g, 0.3516 mmol) a yellowish sand, and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (1.2 ml) was added to a 5-ml conical vial. A spin vane was added and a water-jacked condenser was attached.
The original reaction done by Kolbe involved the formation of sodium phenoxide through the evaporation of a molar equivalent mixture of phenol and aqueous sodium hydroxide. The hygroscopic sodium phenoxide is then heated while carbon dioxide gas is passed over the molten salt. The mixture is then further heated to give the dianion of salicylic acid along with carbon dioxide and phenol both of which distill away from the mixture. Under these
Catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol As a model reaction, we selected the reduction of 4-NP by NaBH4 to 4-AP. The reduction was followed with the aqueous solution in a standard quartz cell with a 1cm path length. The reaction process was as follows: 1.5 mL of 0.15 mM 4-NP was mixed with 1.0 mL of 0.02 M NaBH4 in the cell for UV-Vis measurements. Immediately, the colour change was observed from light yellow to deep yellow. 0.5 mL of AuNPs solution was added to the above mixture.
4- Add HCl acid (acidizing agent) after completing the reaction. 5- layering; concentrating under a lower pressure, add residues into an alcohols solvent for dissolution, add drops of H2O to separate out flucloxacillin crystals 6- Then dissolve Flucloxacillin acid in an organic solvent. 7- Drip Na iso-octoate solution for reaction to produce a product, namely flucloxacillin sodium monohydrate. Step 1: Step 2: Step
The beginning of the cycle started with the amalgamation of CO2 into organic molecules. This process; carbon fixation involves the reduction including electrons delivered by NADPH. Since "ATP from the light reactions influences parts of the Calvin cycle, it is the Calvin cycle that creates sugar, with the aid of ATP and NADPH from the light reaction". The raw materials for anabolic pathways and fuel for respiration is provided when Carbohydrates takes form of disaccharide sucrose travel through the veins to non-photosynthetic cells, and formation of the extracellular polysaccharide cellulose. Cellulose is the utmost plentiful organic molecule, as well as the main ingredient of cell walls in plants.