Lareina Chen Mr. Hayward 9A January 11th, 2017 Genetic Engineering Essay Genetic engineering is a powerful and dangerous technology. Sometimes called genetic modification, genetic engineering is the process of altering the DNA in an organism’s genome. Editing the sequence of nucleotides can sometimes lead to extreme harmful effects on the human race, while on the other hand generates huge benefits for society. While talking about Genetic engineering, it is carried out by CRISPR. CRISPR stands for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.” It can quickly twist most of the genes in any plant or animal.
The animals are then screened to check which one shows the phenotype similar to human diseases. The two most effective ways to generate mutations are by exposing organisms to X-rays or to the chemical N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Transgenesis Transgenic animals are generated by adding foreign genetic information to the nucleus of embryonic cells, thereby inhibiting gene expression. As against the use of X-ray or ENU, transgenesis uses the technique of injection of foreign DNA or the use of retroviral vector to introduce the transgene into an organism’s DNA. To increase the size of DNA fragments used in transgenesis, scientists are cloning them in yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs).
However, the transforming substance was not identified in these experiments. Up to 1944, Avery et al demonstrated that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was the transforming substance (Avery, 1944). In 1952, Hershey and Chase showed that DNA was the only material transferred during bacteriophage infection, which suggested that the DNA is the genetic material (Hershey, 1952). The basic technique for introducing DNA into E. coli have inspired procedures for the introduction of DNA into cells from a wide variety of organisms, including mammalian
Monocytes/macrophages, microglial cells, and latently infected quiescent CD4+ T-cells contain integrated provirus and are important long-living cellular reservoirs of HIV. Upon cell activation, transcription of proviral DNA into a messenger RNA occurs. Transcription process initially results in the early synthesis of regulatory HIV-1 proteins such as Tat and Rev. Tat binds to the TAR site (Transactivation Response Element) at the beginning of the HIV-1 RNA in the nucleus and stimulates the transcription and the formation of longer RNA transcripts. Rev facilitates the transcription of longer RNA transcripts and the expression of structural and enzymatic genes and inhibits the production of regulatory proteins, therefore promoting the formation of mature viral
Then the focus of HIV vaccines turned on to Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes [8-13]. Because in immune system Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes play a significant role in controlling the levels of virus during the natural infection of HIV. So targeting CTLs has also been a preference for research and development of HIV vaccine (3). The development of HIV vaccine is a difficult challenge because of lengthy, time consuming and expensive clinical trials for testing HIV candidate vaccines (2). In spite of the difficult and enormous challenge, the recent success provide a way forward towards the development of vaccine against HIV (2).
The important tests to be done, along with pedigree are the following: A Complete Blood Count along with all red cell indices. An HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) and IEF (Isoelectric focussing - electrophoresis) are also done. A confirmatory testing is performed of all results where abnormal haemoglobin is detected, on the original blood sample using a different technique from the screening test. State the major ethical and policy issues in medical genetics. Medical genetics has come to be accepted as a boon to this phase of the Earth, but it has its disadvantages and controversies.
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
One of the ethical issues of today that the medical field is facing is about genetic engineering. A genetic engineering technology also known as genetic modification is a way in which the organism’s genetic genome, a complete set of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is being directly manipulated using biotechnology. You can customize your offspring by having the opportunity to choose which genetic trait your unborn child should posses, best examples are gender, eyes and the color of the hair. Genetic engineering in lay man’s term is designer baby. The idea of genetic modification has started to cure illnesses by replacing an unhealthy DNA of an unborn child to a healthy one to eliminate the occurrence of diseases that can be carried out hereditarily
This allows for variation in species and a better way to cope with changes and stresses in the environment In conclusion, Epigenetics is a double edged sword. It has both positive aspects that have helped the human population survive and grow but it has also has caused disease and unstable DNA. With this knowledge, Scientists are testing the possible of artificially modifying the epigenome through gene therapy. This can cure diseases such as cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer’s and creating a new human population that is able to adapt to various environmental
Also many believe that genetic engineering is unethical as manipulating DNA is unnatural. DNA FINGERPRINTING Principle: Everyone has a unique DNA fingerprint so this method is used to distinguish and identify people. A similar process which uses PCR as opposed to restriction enzymes is DNA profiling or STR analysis (uses micro satellites instead of mini satellites as they have less base pairs). Procedure: DNA is extracted e.g.. from blood, saliva, hair etc. Restriction enzymes cut the DNA resulting in varied lengths which are separated according to size.
What role does the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) play in producing a DNA Profile? PCR amplifies the regions of DNA with short tandem repeats and uses primers with fluorescent labels. This works by replicating the region of DNA several times. The same region is also amplified on both chromosomes, however they are different sizes, which are then put into gel
But that’s not all your body does, it also records a memory of the configuration of that specific pathogen, and the best way to denature it. Because every pathogen is different, a different approach is needed, in order for our immune system to deal with each and every one. A vaccine contains either a very small and safe amount of the actual pathogen which it’s intended to protect you from or a pathogen which is already dead. Once the inactive pathogen has been injected into our body, an immune system response is triggered and it learns everything about the pathogen and remembers it, so if it ever comes along again, in greater numbers, our immune system is
For the human body to function properly, all differentiated cells and tissues must work together. Should cells or tissues be damaged or die, the body must be able to replace them in order to continue in smooth operation. If the body is not able to replace the cells properly and efficiently, it can lead to severe injury or death. Therefore, one of the largest topics in the medical research is a way to find cells that can replace lost ones and work successfully for a long time in the future (“Stem Cells”). With the success of stem cell research and stem cell therapy, many diseases such as type 1 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, certain cancers and spinal cord injury have been cured in patients.
Genetic engineering is changing the DNA code to express different traits. A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA that contains important genetic information. Recombinant DNA is the product after inserting your desired genes. The genes we hoped to insert in the pGLO lab were the GFP gene and the ampicillin resistance gene. GFP was needed so that we would tell if the ampicillin resistance gene had been properly placed when the bacteria glowed under a UV light.
The Solid sequencing platform, produced by Technologies/Applied Biosystems (ABI), performs sequencing by ligation method. Similar like the Roche 454 library preparation, genomic double strand DNA were sheared into small pieces and ligated with two types of adatptors P1 and P2 on two ends. One end with P1 adaptor binds onto the surface of the magnetic bead and emulsion PCR takes place to amplify single nucleotide fragment. Then the oil was washed out and four fluorescent labeled di-bases probes were added into the beads mixture. By matching the 1st and 2nd position of the template by di-base probes, fluorescence was detected and the extra tail with fluorescent probe is cleaved out.