Lareina Chen Mr. Hayward 9A January 11th, 2017 Genetic Engineering Essay Genetic engineering is a powerful and dangerous technology. Sometimes called genetic modification, genetic engineering is the process of altering the DNA in an organism’s genome. Editing the sequence of nucleotides can sometimes lead to extreme harmful effects on the human race, while on the other hand generates huge benefits for society. While talking about Genetic engineering, it is carried out by CRISPR.
Secondly, humans have thirty thousand genes in their DNA, but there is hundred times more bacterial genes playing a role on humans’ lives as well. These two criteria allow Bassler to categorize humans as 90-99% bacteria, and 1-10% human. There are the three important functions of bacteria on humans that help keep up alive. Very importantly, they cover us in an invisible body armor
Agarose gel electrophoresis is an easy and common technique of separating and analyzing DNA. The main objective of this lab is to find the sire of the offspring using gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis is used in laboratories to isolate charged molecules like DNA, RNA, and particular proteins according to their specific size. The charged molecules travel through the gel when an electric current is spread across it. The electric current is applied across the gel so that the ends of the gel have a positive charge and the other end has a negative charge.
In this test, primary halides precipitate the fastest while secondary halides need to be heated in order for a reaction to occur. Comparison of the rates of precipitation of the obtained product to standard 1° and 2° bromide solutions will show whether the product is a primary or secondary
Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) Principle: PCR is a process which involves taking a DNA template and amplifying distinct regions of it in vitro. To conduct PCR you need the DNA sample, DNA primers( two because one is forward and one is a reverse primer), Deoxynucleoside triphosphate bases(dNTP), DNA (Taq) polymerase, a buffer and some cations (mg2+). The reaction is carried out in a thermal cycler which fluctuates the temperature to allow progression of the amplification. Procedure: Initially the double helix is separated by breaking the hydrogen bonds using heat, leaving the bases exposed.
Figure 1 gives the overall protocol for the testing of GMOs. This is based on a PCR detection system specific for 35S promoter region originating from cauliflower mosaic virus (Deisingh and Badrie 2005). The development of quantitative detection systems such as quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR), real-time PCR and ELISA systems resulted in the advantage of survival of DNA in most manufacturing processes. Otherwise with ELISA, there can be protein denaturing during food processing. Inter-laboratory differences were found to be less with the QC-PCR than with quantitative PCR probably due to insufficient homogenisation of the sample.
The STR length contrast is what is used to differentiate individuals. Gel electrophoresis then uses the STRs to create a DNA profile. The gel electrophoresis separates the STRs depending on their length and the pattern is then shown in fluorescent gel creating the profile. These profiles are then used by scientist to compare patterns between evidence and or suspects to determine a match or not a match.
Conjugative transfer which involves the acquisition of plasmid, and is mediated by cell to cell junctions and a pore through which DNA passes. This system has plasmid as the important component. The transfer of DNA in small units through the plasmid carriers is possible and is found to be preferred because, the transfer of whole chromosomes could take an hour, a duration too long to keep the interbacterial junction intact. Conjugation can mediate the transfer of genetic material between domains (for example, between bacteria and plants, and between bacteria and yeast; 29
Single cell DNA Fingerprinting- Dr Ian Findlay and his colleagues first reported the flourishing development of a DNA fingerprint from a single cell in 1997. Single-cell DNA profiling is mainly helpful in rape cases, as DNA in sperm cells is extremely conserved due to it being so compressed in the protein head. There is also likely for the method in use in documents. 9. Mitochondrial DNA-Mitochondrial organelle is concerned with the making of cell energy.
Medicine is an art or a science It has several meanings. It could be used as an alternative word to drug and most of the simple-minded people look at it as just science, biology to be specific. Medicine can be defined as the practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. It could be also the study of human structure and function to be able to save the organisms life. But medicine is so much more than that.
The key enzyme in the process is DNA polymerase that forms the PCR product by linking individual nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine). Short DNA fragments with sequence complimentary to target DNA are called primers; these specify the DNA sequence that has to be amplified. The PCR reaction mixture is made in a 96 well plate or test tube and placed in a thermal cycler. The thermal cycler is a machine used to amplify DNA by altering the temperature in repeated cycles using three precise pre programmed steps: Denaturation – By increasing the temperature in the thermal cycler the DNA is denatured creating separate single stranded DNA
Furthermore, Acinetobactor baylyi ADP1 like most organisms undergoes a process known as DNA recombination, where two complementary DNA strands cross and exchange portions of DNA. During recombination, a structure known as a Holliday Junction forms and must be resolved, completing the exchange of DNA (Aravind et al. 2000). Recombination is a crucial mechanism in both gene amplification and deletion. Specifically, ADP1 contains a protein called YqgF, a putative Holliday Junction Resolvase, due to its structural similarity to a known resolvase named RuvC (Aravind et al.
After multiple cycles of ligation, detection and tail cleavages, the extended chain reached the end of the template. Then the whole extension chain is removed and a new starting primer switching down 1 nucleotide position binds onto the template for another cycle of reaction. Totally, five round of primer binding cycles are performed to complete the sequencing of each fragment. 3. Pitfalls and limitations of NGS Errors could be introduced in any step of the sequencing process, including library
The silver ion TLC was prepared through the following procedure: Silver nitrate was dissolved in 10 ml of distilled water. This aqueous solution of silver nitrate was absolutely mixed with 9 g of silica gel (10 ~ 40 μm particles). Then, a 10 × 5 cm TLC plate was coated with the above slurry and activated for 1 h at 90 °C before use. They were immediately transferred into a desiccator in dark for storage after cooling. 32 100 μL of afore-prepared sample solution and the mixed reference standard were diluted 100 times with ethyl acetate.