What is Discourse Analysis? Discourse analysis is basically a common term for a range of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use or any significant semiotic event. Discourse analysis is usually viewed as language sentence or the clause. It is the look of linguistics that's concerned about how we build up meaning in larger communicative, instead of grammatical units. It studies meaning in text, paragraph and conversation, rather than in single sentence.
Matthiessen (1995) discusses grammatical metaphor as a way of expanding the semantic potential of the system; also Thompson (1996) defines it as the expression of a meaning through a lexical- grammatical form which originally evolved to express a different kind of meaning. Halliday (1985: 1994) referred to grammatical metaphor (GM) as the non congruent ways of encoding language. Congruent forms are the natural ways that language encodes the meaning they express; the non –congruent ways of encoding language are viewed as metaphorical expression or grammatical metaphor. In this sense, grammatical metaphor is defined by Eggins (2004) as “the situations where meanings typically (congruently) realized by one type of language pattern get realized by other less typical or metaphorical (noncongruent) linguistic
Abstract: The cognitive linguistic view of metaphor can provide insights into how certain linguistic phenomena work, and it can shed new light on how metaphorical meaning emerges. It also presents the new analysis that both metaphorical language and thought arise from the basic bodily, sensorimotor experience of human beings. Metaphor seems to be deeply embedded in our way of conceptualising the world and, as a result, metaphors realized in language are only possible due to the conceptual metaphors that structure our thinking. The focus of this study is to analyse abstract target domains, which are often understood via human body parts in English, in order to support the hypothesis that the metaphorical concept is thus embodied and experiential
Similarly word summarization is also just like a text summarization in which we will give the text as a paragraph and from that text we can find the word summary using Word Sense Disambiguation technique. 1.3 Word sense disambiguation Word Sense Disambiguation is a challenging technique in Natural Language Processing. There are some words in the natural languages which can cause ambiguity about the sense of the word. Those words are called polysemous words. Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is the solution to the problem.
The defining factor of this multicultural re-orientation of discourse analysis is that it breaks out of the limits of the cultural imperialism on the other hand and maintains multicultural dynamics on the other. The Cultural nature of Discourse Studies Discourse analysis is verily influenced by culture in a number of ways. For research to be done certain aspects have an influence in the way research is done. Certain discursive characteristics and tendencies have been identified notably and proposed by (Xu, 2006): Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) - is modelled upon language as conceptualised in structural linguistics. Language is understood as unfolding and evolving because of many interactions across the world.
Moreover, resolution of such problems is a pre-requisite for generating good translation in target language. Divergences occur at different levels and severely affect the quality of a translation. The underlying principles for divergences are attributed to those cases where the basic concept of a sentence in the source language is expressed and distributed over different words or a series of different words in the target language (Dash 2004). As a language-dependent phenomenon, divergence may affect quality of a translation and reduce authenticity of a translated
It is an extra textual feature. But translator’s presence can be found withinthe text. This can be deduced be analyzing how has the text been translated? In these concepts like translator’s poetics, power relations, translational norms, and translational interpretation play the part. All these concepts are looked upon as different ways of trying to make visible the textual category of translator.
Darmesteter main focus was to find the causes and laws of semantic change, and he regarded figure of speech, such as metaphor, metonymy and synecdoche to describe the transitions between the meanings of words (Darmesteter 1887). Words a born
Instead, they are governed by different sorts of conceptual metaphors systematically. Thus, the mechanism of conceptual metaphors is mappings across conceptual domains: the source domain (entities that we are familiar with) is mapped onto the target domain (entities that we attempt to explain or comprehend) by ontological and epistemic correspondences. Via the ontological correspondences, the entities in the source domain are mapped onto the entities in the target domain. As for the epistemic correspondences, knowledge of the source domain is mapped onto knowledge of the target domain to form inference patterns. With the ARGUMENTS ARE BUILDINGS metaphor, for instance, the ontological correspondences between the two domains are as follows: 1.
Processes are realized as a configuration of transitivity functions which represent the process, the participant in the situation, the attributes assigned to participants, and the circumstances associated with the process. This leads Halliday (1994) to the assumption that ideational grammatical metaphor is called metaphors of transitivity. In line with Haliday's assumption, Taverniers (2003:8) explains the reason is that “the grammatical variation between congruent and incongruent forms applies to transitivity configurations and can be analyzed in terms of the functional structure of the configurations.” Thus, in its analysis, the congruent forms, which are the typical forms of lexicogrammatical realization and incongruent/metaphorical forms are compared to see the grammatical contrasts between the constituents. IGM is the first type of grammatical metaphor, which is concerned with the construction of an alternative view of reality, by means of rearranging lexciogrammatical