We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture. Aims of experiment • Determine the rate constants for hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl in solvent mixtures of different composition (50/50 V/V isopropanol/water and 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water) • Examine the effect of solvent mixture composition on the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl Introduction With t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, being a tertiary halogenoalkane, it is predicted that (CH3)3CCl reacts with water in a nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN1 mechanism), where Step 1 is the rate-determining step. The reaction proceeds in a manner as shown
In this experiment, racemic 2-methylcyclohexanone was reduced using sodium borohydride as a nucleophile to give a diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans secondary alcohols. The products were analyzed for purity using IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography. 1.2 g of 2-methylcyclohexanone and 10 mL of methanol were combined in a flask and cooled in an ice bath. Two 100 mg portions of sodium borohydride were added to the flask and stirred. 5 mL of 3M sodium hydroxide, 5 mL of de-ionized water, and 15 mL of hexane were added to the reaction flask and stirred.
Production diclofenac acid (DFA) by diclofenac sodium (DFS) hydrolysis DFA which yielded from DFS hydrolysis was characterized by FT-IR and DTA. Fig. 2 showed the information provided by the spectra FT-IR profile, which distinguished DFS from DFA. The DFA’s spectra showed a specific absorption peak at 3324 cm-1 which correspond to free OH stretching of a carboxylic group. Free acid was also presented as a peak at 1693 cm-1 associated with C=O stretch and 1157 cm-1 correspond to the C-O stretch.
In order to determine the value of X, the hydrate is heated on a burner to undergo decomposition reaction to be decomposed into CuSO4 and water vapor. Water vapor is evaporated during the reaction, leaving CuSO4 crystals, which is supposed to be white, in remain. By weighing the mass of CuSO4 and the mass difference of substance before and after the reaction, the mole of CuSO4 and H2O can be calculated. The value of X can thus be determined by calculating the mole ratio of CuSO4 and H2O. In the lab, through calculation, the value of X is determined to equal to 5.361211229, which is close to 5.
The solution was stirred at room temperature for 8h. The solvent was blown out with nitrogen. The residue was added to 1 ml of water containing 0.1% TFA and purified on RP-HPLC. Massspec of the final product clearly indicates presence of RB modified on PEI by series of peaks matching different polymer compositions (see Fig. 6).
A titration is the precise addition of a solution from a buret into an accurately measured volume of a sample solution. A titrant is the solution in the buret that is used for the titration, and the volume of the solution is known. The titrants used in this lab were 0.1M hydrochloric acid and 0.1M sodium hydroxide (the reactions can be seen in figure 4). A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a compound that donates a proton. A Bronsted-Lowry base is a compound that accepts a proton.
The mass reduction at 140 ºC and an endothermic peak at 123.8 ºC on the TGA/DTA curve of the extract assigned to the evaporation of water, while on FeMPn the mass reduction observed under 100 ºC and an endothermic peak emerged at 96.17 ºC. The mass reduction and endothermic peaks also emerged at 200-300 ºC and above 300 ºC on the TGA/DTA curve of the extract and FeMPn respectively indicated the evaporation of some organic molecules. The broad exothermic peak at 280 ºC on the TGA/DTA curve of FeMPn indicated the bond breaking of L-dopa with magnetite nanoparticles. At a temperature of 550 ºC, the total mass of the extract remained was 38.37%, while it was 48.70% for FeMPn. From these results, it could be concluded that the addition of Fe to the extract impacted on the thermal stability that made FeMPn has a better thermal stability than the extract
Once AMD reached the coveted pH level, it was filtered using filter paper (0.45 μm) to obtain the precipitate. The filtrates were then measured for the EC level using conductivity meter, TDS level using TDS meter, and concentration of Cu2+ using PerkinElmer Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) Analyst 400. All analyses were conducted in Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Mataram. Filtrates (with several pH levels) found to still contain Cu2+, would be treated to the sulfidization treatment. Sulfidization treatment using SNW from Sebau This experiment was conducted by adding pure SNW from three sampling points (T1, T2, and T3) to the AMD with three different pH levels in 1:1 ratio reaction.
The ion exchange capacity is measured by the chemical titration [Hasimi A, Stavropoulou A, Papadokostaki KG, Sanopoulou M. Euro Polym J (2008) 4098-107]. In order to measure the IEC values, the dry samples were soaked in 1M aqueous NaCl solution at room temperature for 24 hours to exchange of proton by sodium ions. The ion-exchanged NaCl solution was back titrated with 0.1M NaOH solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The protonic conductivity measurements were made through via Nyquist plot using N4L PSM 1735 series LCZ meter with amplitude of 10 mV from 1 Hz to 1 MHz The proton conductivity values are calculated
These parameters include; pH, buffer (type & volume), concentration of NBD-Cl, reaction and stability time, temperature, acidification and diluting solvent. 3.1.1. Effect of pH The effect of the solution pH on the reaction product formation was studied in the pH range of 6.5– 9.5 using Clark