Historically, the first crusade commenced in 1095. This happened when Christian armies from Western Europe heed to the plea from the pope to battle Islamic forces based in the Holy Land. Essentially, there have been many debates concerning whether crusades were justifiable in bringing a certain order into the world. At first, the objective of the crusade that begun in 1095 achieved its objective following the Jerusalem capture. Christian invaders set up many Latin Christian States; while Muslim in the region swore to wage war against these Christian invaders.
This crusade was declared by Pope Eugenius III in 1147 after it became apparent the crusader states were still under threat of Muslim invasion. The Second crusade was led by King Conrad III of Germany and King Louis VII of France. (Source 5)The kings planned to march into Anatolia to push back the Turkish armies and provide reinforcements for the crusader states and once again solidifying the presences of Christianity in the Middle East however this would be difficult due to many knights having died during the first crusade. Both kings were eventually defeated by the Turks and called off the crusade in 1149 without making any significant achievements during their time crusading (Source 7). The second crusade was uneventful compared to other crusades and is considered a failure due to the lack of communication between King Conrad and King Louis, the defeat effected Europe in that it damaged their economy, many soldiers died on the journey and the crusade created internal turmoil.
The Crusades were known as a series of battles launched by Europe against the Islamic religion to take back the holy land of Jerusalem. When the First Crusade was launched, Jerusalem churches were under the Muslim rule. When Pope Urban II was elected, he found himself the head of a reformed movement to win back the holy land of Jerusalem, and relieve churches of the Muslim rule. Emperor Alexius, the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, requested help from Pope Urban because the Muslims were killing his Christian people. Since the Muslims were in command of Jerusalem, the violent acts happening in the Byzantine Empire by the Muslims were happening in Jerusalem as well.
Gildo revolted against the western empire, of which his territory was a part of and declared for Arcadius instead. This though meant that the valuable African grain supply to Rome went to the hands of the east. Stilicho of course suspected Eutropius was involved in this, though he did not follow the manyfold advice of starting an open war with the east. Instead he started a systematic diplomatic intrigue which eventually, in AD 399, thrown Eutropius from the office and banished into exile. Meanwhile Stilicho stopped the rebellion of Gildo and returned Africa to the western empire.
Introduction: Provide background information on the Crusades, restate the DBQ question, state thesis with reasons. (include academic vocabulary and underline) The results of the Crusades was probably more negative than positive. In “Doc 4”, It states that “Moreover, the assault of one Christian people on another, when one of the goals of the Fourth Crusade was reunion of Greek and Latin churches, made the split between the Greek and Latin churches permanent.” The Crusades had a lot of hatred to the religions, and by 1204 the Crusaders had lost some of their appeal because the knights agreed to attack the Byzantine Capital instead. Body Paragraph #1: Reason #1 and Evidence Supporting Sentences: Using the structure: “Evidence, Elaborate, Explain, Examples” Cite from any 2 documents and explain why this evidence shows that the results
After the Treaty of Paris in 1763, which ended the Seven Years War between the French and the British as well as all of their allies, the French lost claim to all of their land. The English being the winners of the war claimed the majority, and what they did not seize was given to the Spanish for their support and help in the war. In 1802 France and Spain signed a secret treaty called The Treaty Of Ildefonso. Once the treaty was fulfilled, Spain gave the Louisiana territory back to France (“Background”). Napoleon had interest in Louisiana for the purpose mainly to ship supplies to the French colonies in the Caribbean islands but also as a source of food and trade.
The story begins with Charlemagne's army fighting the Muslims in Spain, and the last city standing is Saragossa. Roland bravely offers to lead the rear guard. Pagans attack them at Roncesvals and the Christians are overwhelmed by their sheer numbers. Seeing how badly outnumbered they are, Roland is asked to blow on his oliphant by another officer to call for help from the main body of the Frankish army. Roland proudly refuses, saying that they need no help because the rear guard is strong enough to hold them.
In the book, Damascus was chosen as the first location because it was closer and was thought to have been weaker than Jerusalem. Unfortunately, the Crusaders lost in battle and ended up retreating. This was the story told in the book, and according to an article by World History in Context, “the Second Crusaders saw a closer target, Damascus, a city controlled by the Muslims, although allies to the Crusaders and enemies of Nar-ad-Din. Despite this fact being made clear, on 24 June 1148 the Second Crusaders decided to advance on the allied Damascus. Their attack failed”.
During the early 700’s, Charles Martel took over in Latin Christendom, his Frankish kingdom of Christians. Martel’s kingdom was under threat of a rapidly spreading religion, Islam. This led to many battles between Christians and Muslims, but the most significant one was the Battle of Tours, 723 AD. Martel lead his army against the Muslims to attempt to stop them from progressing further into Europe, and he does. Without Christianity, this event would have never happened.
Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont in 1095 was a call to crusade given outdoors to the nobles, commoners and church leaders of the Western European Christians (the Franks). The people were moved by this speech and it changed history, launching the first crusade to capture Jerusalem from the Muslim Turks. After hearing Pope Urban II’s speech, thousands of Western European Christians were moved to embark on the dangerous journey and fight in the crusade. I believe the main reasons they were moved and persuaded to fight was; 1) they felt it was their Christian duty, 2) Pope Urban promised them absolution for their sins and 3) they felt compelled to defend Christianity, their holy land and the Eastern Christians. First, the Western Christians wanted to show they were solely devoted to God.
In 1095 on November 27 in Clermont,France, Pope Urban the II called for a Crusade to help the Byzantines and free the city of Jerusalem. The official start date was set as August 15, 1096. This order little did he know would be the cause of a battle that turned into 9 war’s that last for nearly 200 years. This event in history clearly has a outcome that is way more negative than positive. Have you ever imagined being in the middle of a 200 year war people dropping like flies just because of an argument over one city?
The Crusades began as an attempt to regain Jerusalem, the Catholic Holy Land, from the Muslims. There were three initial crusades, and the best verdict they reached was a treaty at the end of the third. The Fourth Crusade only succeed in trashing Constantinople, but another crusade began; however, it lacked public support. This 5th crusade was the strange and ill-fated Children’s Crusade. Hungry for success, this Christian army was made up of thousands of children of various ages.
The conflict causing the schism in 1054 was known as an investiture controversy. An investiture controversy describes a dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Empire over who held ultimate authority over the bishops in imperial lands. Popes of this time were corrupt and desired power. They started the Crusades to establish their power over the rightful rulers of Western Europe. The Crusades were armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim Rule.
It all comes down to motivation/mission, and the aid received from the home nation. The French never fully recovered both politically and militarily from the war with Spain before they begin their expedition. With a mission and motive being mostly to flex the French crown’s power by settling into Florida means that the crown had no real plans for colonization. In reference to other discussion throughout this class, the French took the same idea the Spanish used earlier. A stronghold within the territory to attempt to hold the whole area of Florida.
As stated earlier, after promoting Thomas Becket from manager of public relations to chancellor, King Henry expected him to do anything he told him to do. Thomas Becket did not feel that some of the changes of limiting the clergy were in accordance with his beliefs, so he argued and refused to sign the papers. Eventually, this became so much of a problem that Thomas Becket had to leave England and go to France, with King Henry’s greatest rival, for six years. "The King continued doggedly in his pursuit of control over his clerics, to the point where his religious policy became detrimental to his subjects. By 1170, the Pope was considering excommunicating all of Britain.