Muhammad, God’s prophet, was a follower of Islam, and thus prayed to Allah, the Islamic “Supreme God.” Muslims follow Sharia Islamic Laws. Rather than having emperors, they had Sultans, as their leaders. Islamic Caliphates were able to unite the fighting tribes in the Arabian Peninsula, and spread throughout the Middle East of Europe. The Islamic Caliphates were soon able to conquer North Africa and the Persian Empire. However, as the Islamic Caliphates were expanding their empire, they were seized from expanding by the Byzantine Empire, in the battle of Tours (Spielvogel
At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II gave his famous sermon beckoning the Christians to join together with the Byzantines and recapture Jerusalem, from the Muslims control. Exaggerating the anti-Christian acts of the Muslims, Urban exhorted Christendom to go to war for the Sepulcher, promising that the journey would count as full penance and that the homes of the absent ones would be protected by a truce.i Pope Urban II sermon spurred many people ranging from the ordinary citizens to the elite military, to join and fight for the Holy Land. In 1096, the People 's Crusade also known as the Popular Crusade took place. Feeling inspired Pope Urban 's sermon, a French man called Peter the Hermit became a leader for the Crusades. Peter the Hermit quickly whipped up enormous excitement with his preaching in northern France and by early March 1096 he had dispatched a large force of foot-soilders with only eight knights under Walter Sans Avoir.ii Most of Peter 's army were poor peasants and were unskilled in warfare.
Like a Jihad, the Crusades were postulant expeditions in the name of God, to protect the Holy Land from the Arab Muslims. Later on, the Crusades became a substantial excuse for Christians to fight anyone who was supposedly a threat for their religion. The crusaders looted every city they passed, compiling anything that could be of economic interest to them. Adding to that, even
The motivation for the Anabaptists was the search for purely scriptural Christianity. They took an approach similar to that of Zwingli but went much further, attempting to establish all doctrine and practice from Scripture alone. They decided to discard everything not found in the Bible. The Anabaptists desired the restoration of New Testament Christianity not only in theology but
Occurring predominantly in Europe and the Middle East, the Crusades began in 1095 and officially ended in 1291 (History.com staff, 2010). This being said, the causes can be traced back to 1081 when Alexius Comnenus gained the Byzantine throne, becoming Emperor Alexius I, after years of chaos and invasions by the Seljuk Turks (History.com staff, 2010). In due time Emperor Alexius would begin to set his sights on reclaiming the Holy Land from the Muslims. Seeing that this task would require more than the Byzantine’s men, he reached out to Pope Urban II of the Roman Catholic Church asking him for troops (History.com staff, 2010). The Pope made his decision public at the 1095 Council of Clermont in Southern France where he raised the proposal for all able Western Christians to raise arms to aid the Byzantines.
What were the Crusades? According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, 1 the Crusades were a series of holy wars called by popes with the promise of indulgences for those who fought in them and directed against external and internal enemies of Christendom for the recovery of Christian property or in defense of the Church or Christian people. This essay is going to outline the main events, and explain the reasons for, the first three crusades, by giving the timeline of main events that took place and telling as to why the Crusades happened. The First Crusade was initiated in November 1095 by Pope Urban II in the town of Clermont in France. It took place in Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, and Levant.
It was the incursion of the West European Crusaders or the Christian warriors of the Cross. They had taken over the kingdom of Jerusalem and threatened to terrorize and pillage other Muslim lands. It was in such circumstances that Al Ghazali had to present a theory to tackle the problems of the divide between the Caliphate and the government, to ensure that the caliphate was the protector of religious authority in the Islamic world backed by armies provided by the Seljuk Sultans, who were equipped with armies to crush invaders to their
They were jealous that they didn’t occupy Jerusalem, and they thought that Jerusalem was rightfully theirs. So, as a result, Pope Urban II called on the people of Western Europe to take arms and march to the land of the Seljuk Muslims to claim Jerusalem as their own. Despite the friendly relations, jealousy encouraged the Christian Europeans to start the Crusades. The
Motivations are what create an article. Motivations are reasons behind something someone does or says. It is what motivates a person to write a story or article, that creates the development of the plot of an article or story. In “Capture of the Christian ‘Navel of the World’” it gives history a first perspective view of the siege of Jerusalem during the first Crusades. “Umar’s Inaugural Speech” is a persuasive speech on how the public should view their new leader, it also comes with a map that shows Muslim expansion and its military campaign.
The weakened Persian Empire fell victim to an army of Muslims bent on global conquest. The Muslims quickly absorbed Persia into it’s rapidly expanding empire. Also, the Byzantine strongholds of Jerusalem, and Byzantine territory in Egypt and other parts of North Africa fell to the Muslims. The Muslim forces marched to the walls of Constantinople, but they were repelled by a Byzantine weapon known as “Greek fire,” an incendiary weapon that was developed in 672. They used it in naval battles.