purified through preparative LC as described above and finally characterized as phloretin and phloridzin (Fig. 1). Compound 1 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one or phlorizin was obtained as amorphous powder, mp 2620C. The UV/Visible spectrum of the compound showed λmax at 225 and 285 nm. ESI–MS m/z 297 [M+Na]+ in positive ion mode and 273 [M-H] in negative ion mode for molecular formula C15H14O5; 274.
The solution homogeneity expelled, by centrifugation for 10 min. The sample was centrifuged and separated into two layers, and took the top of the sample is injected for HPLC (11,12). Measured concentration in total lipid: The total fats balanced concentration of the pesticide getting by dividing the measured pesticide residue concentration in the overalll tissue sample by the decimal fraction of the sample that consisted of ether-extractable lipid. The total lipid content of each specimen was estimated from its total cholesterol & triglycerides levels by using a summation method. Analytical results for organochlorine pesticides were reported on a lipid-adjusted basis (nanograms per gram or parts per billion) (14).
The inoculum was prepared from fresh overnight broth culture in nutrient dextrose broth. Plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C and 96 hours at 28°C for antibacterial and antifungal activity respectively. 3.9 Chromatographic profiling and SDS-PAGE of Peptide/protein extracted from aqueous leaf extract The methods used sequentially for purification of aqueous extract were i) Ammonium Sulfate Precipitation, ii) dialysis and iii) Ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose columns. All steps were carried out at 4ºC to maintain the stability of the isolated products unless mentioned otherwise. The chemicals and dialysis membrane matrix used for the partial purification were ammonium Sulfate, Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate, Sodium Hydrogen Phosphate, Sodium Chloride, dialysis membrane cut off 5 kDa and DEAE-Cellulose.
The chemical equation for this experiment is hydrochloric acid + sodium thiosulphate + deionised water (ranging from 25ml to 0ml in 5ml intervals) sodium chloride + deionised water (ranging from 25ml to 0ml in 5ml intervals) + sulphur dioxide + sulphur. As a scientific equation, this would be written out as, NA2S2O3 + 2HCL + H2O (ranging from 25ml to 0ml in
Morphine for Medication Morphine has been known as a drug, a devil people mustn’t interfere with, but they never think about its benefits as a medical treatment. There are so many painful health conditions that people face nowadays, such as cancer pain, a pain after a major surgery, a pain after major trauma or injury, or a heart attack. Morphine is a strong opioid painkiller that is used to treat those conditions to relieve the pain. Although morphine is addictive and can ruin a user’s health, it also has benefits as a medication. In the 18th century, Europe had a high demand for Chinese goods but the Chinese didn’t have a high demand for European goods.
Mitragyna speciosa or kratom is a tropical evergreen tree native in Southeast Asia and has been used in traditional medicine since the 19th century. However, the US Food and Drug Administration announced that the kratom plant has opioid properties and is unsafe for medical use. People in certain regions, such as Thailand and Indonesia, define the plant as a medicinal herb used for chronic pain management, treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms, and recreational activities. However, pharmaceutical experts classify it as an opioid because of its chemical components and warn people of the potential danger the plant can cause in human health. The US FDA conducted a scientific analysis using a computational model to determine the compound in
Leaf sap is an emmenaogue and antidote for opium poisoning (Warrier et al., 1994). Bark is reported to be abortifacient, depurative and a brain tonic and taken internally for snake bite (Govil, 1993). Root-bark extract also shows antimalarial activity (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1998). The powdered root is considered useful for the treatment of cancerous tumours (Parotta, 2001). Chemical constituents of seeds as revealed by phytochemical analysis were sesquiterpene alkaloids like celapagine, celapanigine and celapanine (CSIR, 1992).The conventional method of propagation of this medicinallyimportant plant is through seeds.
Inulin Extraction: Viable processes for inulin extraction have been previously reported by Hébette et al., (1998) and Franck, (2002 a). Hébette et al., (1998), indicated a successful application of hot water (95°C) on sliced chicory roots for the isolation of inulin. The resultant crude inulin extract was then concentrated under reduced pressure and subsequently crystallized as a pasty substance at cold temperatures (4°C) over a period of 30 hours. The recovered product was ultimately spray dried to yield a white powder. Difficulties were encountered however in the processing and removal of the final product by filtration after crystallization.
The emulsion of linoleic acid was prepared by mixing 0.28 g of linoleic acid (Labchem, USA), 0.28 g of Tween-20 (Labchem, USA) emulsifier and 50 ml of phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 7.0). The mixture is then run through the homogenizer (Ultra-Turax T25, IKA-Labortechnik, Germany). One hundred microliters of 100, 400, 800, 1600, 2000 and 2400 µg.ml-1 of OLE in methanol was mixed with linoleic acid emulsion (2.5 ml, 0.2 M, at pH 7.0) and phosphate buffer (2 ml, 0.2 M, pH 7.0). To accelerate the peroxidation reaction the mixture was left in the dark at 37
2.9. Estimation of Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 10 213 The concentration of H2O2 was determined by the method of Okuda et al (38). Fresh leaf 214 sample (0.5 g) was grounded in ice-cold 200 mM HClO4 and was then centrifuged at 215 1200 g for 10 min followed by neutralization of HClO4 of the supernatant with 4M KOH. 216 The insoluble KClO4 was eliminated by further centrifugation at 500g for 3 min. In a 217 total volume of 1.5 mL, the reaction mixture contained 1 mL of the eluate, 400 mL of 218 12.5 mM 3-(dimethylamino) benzoic acid in 0.375 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 80 mL 219 of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazoline hydrazone and 20 mL of peroxidase (0.25 unit).