Large number of the world’s population in recent times tend to live in cities, since it became a standard of living for a large group of people. In the year 2007 half of the world 's population and in 2030 three quarters will be living in urban areas; whereas a great portion of these people are expected to live in slum settlements. The reason behind this increase is due to several factors, including population growth, increased survival and migration. Therefore it should be noted here that the number of diseases will increase due to city congestion. (Freudenberg, Galea and Vlahov, 2006; ICSU, 2011).
The Population Growth- the Population Explosion in Java in the Nineteenth Century In the nineteenth century, there was a rapid increase in population from circa nine hundred million in eighteen hundred to about one point six billion in nineteen hundred (Mcneill, 222). A possible reason for the massive growth is the improvement in communication and transport, contributing to less varies of diseases in a community and more dispersal of food corps (Mcneill, 222). According to the Demographic Theory, founded by Thompson in 1929, a rapid increase in population occurs as follows: First the mortality rate decreases, and is then followed by the decline in fertility rate. As the death rate falls more rapidly and earlier, first a fast increase in population
It shows that during 1901 to 1951, the population grew at 12.27 crore in 50 years with 51.46 per cent growth rate. The decadal growth is 5.75% in 1911, 0.31 in 1921, 11% in 1931, 14.22% in 1941 and 13.31% in 1951. This period may be termed as idle growth. During 1961 to 2011 (the next 50 years), the population increased by 77.10 crore with 181.39% growth rate which is on very higher side. It was surprising that decadal growth of population increased from 13.31% in 1951 to 21.64% in 1961, 24.80% in 1971, 24.66% in 1981, 23.87% in 1991, 21.54% in 2001 and 17.64% in 2011.
It shows the speed of urbanisation process in Kerala after the economic reform. From 1951 to 1981 (30 years) the increase of urban population in Kerala was 29, 45,443 and from 2001 to 2011 the increased urban population is 76, 65,246. Along with the increased urban population the urban places are congested and a huge amount of waste is produced in cities. Governments are failed to control the overproduction of waste and it has become very difficult to dispose eco-friendly. The rapid growth of urban population had led to rapid increase of waste production which had serious socio-economic and environmental impacts (Karadimas, Loumos and Orsoni 2006).
According to the UN Habitat, approximately half of the world’s population is concentrated in cities that are set to rise to 60% within a couple of decades. Many socialists and town planners identified challenges to establishing sustainable cities: demographic change and migration, globalization of the job market, poverty and unmet Millennium Development Goals, segregation, spatial patterns and urban growth, metropolisation and the rise of urban regions, more political power for local authorities, new actors for developing a city and providing services, decline in public funding for development, the environment and climate change, new and accessible building technologies, preparing for uncertainty and limits of growth and global communications and
It is observed that migration as a percentage of total population has been declining up to 1991 census, where as the rural to urban migration is showing an increasing trend over the period 1971 to 2001(Lusome & Bhagat, 2006). Over 22% of migrants has been increased from 1991-2201 since 1951 as revealed in Fig 1.The expansion in the migration rate in the course of 1990s is frequently seen as a result of the powers unleashed by the new monetary arrangement, which depended on the principles of liberalization,, globalization and privatization. Population mobility is a course of action that gets intensified with the process of economic development. Among the various migration streams rural to urban areas is a common and ever-increasing phenomenon in India. Interestingly, this rural-urban migration is observed to have significant implications to the economic development from the previous empirical studies.
Though the study has dealt with urbanization in Indonesia, it has reflected how the arrangement in developing nations However, there are some limitations in using census data for studies in urbanization, for instance, the problem of an urban area, and other technical problem of urban areas of large cities. The national economic development strategies of the 1980s till mid-1990s, which focused on the promotion of non-oil product exports, has significantly affected urbanization and development in Indonesia CONCLUSION In summary, nearly half of Indonesia’s population resided in urban areas by 2006. Nonetheless, as in developing countries, urbanization in Indonesia is still characterized by a substantial concentration of urban populations in a few large cities. To sum up, the study undoubtedly pinpoints that Indonesia’s urbanization patterns indicate a steadiness over the period from 1980 to 2000. Furthermore, it indicates a combination of Indonesia’s large cities, mostly the Jakarta metropolitan area, into a global
Famine of 1873 Bihar, The great Bombay famine 1876-8, famine of 1896-7 and 1899-1900, Bengal 1790-2 and 1943, Orissa 1866, killed millions of people. Despite of the famines, population of India were still raising. Burma and Ceylon were the export traders and many Indian moved toward these areas and the population increased. In 1931 there were more than a million resident in Burma. Industrialization created the demand for labor and people started to migrate toward Assam and Bombay.
The construction of main roads by Asoka gave impetus to trade activities during the heyday of the Mauryanempire. Keywords: Urban Economy, Mauryan Period, the Arthasastra, Industry, Trade. INTRODUCTION The emergence of cities signifies a new form of economic structure
The fastest-growing economies of Malaysia in the developing world is start from year 1970s. Malaysia transformed from a major exporter of palm oil, rubber, tin, tropical timber and other primary commodities to the exporter of manufactured goods and this cause the country Per capita income become doubled in less than a generation. From year around 1970 until year 1980, economic growth was raise around 7.7% and it also raise to 5.8% in year 1980 to year 1990. In year 1990 to year 2005, the economic growth about 6.5%. During year 2008, crisis of financial appear and it caused the economic growth reduce.