Porphyrin Case Study

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The porphyrin is a group of compounds with substituted tetra pyrrole rings linked together by four methine bridging groups [1]. Each pyrrole ring itself consists of a five member ring with four Carbon atoms and one Nitrogen atom. Further modification of these tetra pyrrole rings with conjugated pi-bond system brings these structures to highly conjugated structures with absorption and emission making them fluorescent in nature [64]. Some natural porphyrin [25], synthetic porphyrin and porphyrin derivatives have been used as photosensitizing agent for photo dynamic therapy treatment [2]. The chelation of different metal ions like magnesium and iron to porphyrin in the last stage of synthesis pathway results in the formation of Chlorophyll and hemoprotein, haem in plants and animal respectively [3]. The chlorophyll have vital role in plant orchestrating photosynthesis while the Haem play a pivotal role in respiration [4].…show more content…
The 5-ALA reportedly found to be much better precursor of haem as was confirmed from the labelling of ALA with both 15N and 14C that end up in the formation of haem [5].The glycine is reported to first form 5-ALA as intermediate species which further results in the formation of porphyrin and haem [6]. In animal porphyrin biosynthesis reportedly starts with the formation of 5-ALA, formed by the condensation of the glycine and succinyl COA catalyzed by the enzyme ALA synthase incorporated by the cofactor, pyridoxial phosphate [7].The Shemin route to ALA biosynthesis appear when the aerobes are dominant [8].In plant, Fungi and anaerobic bacteria the ALA biosynthesis have been reported to start from glutamic acid via 2-oxoglutarate, called the C5 route [9]. The anaerobic organism possibly lacks a complete Citric acid cycle [10] and use the C5 route as an ancestral form of ALA biosynthesis

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