Image Concrete is a material or a mixture of materials composed of aggregates or rocks mixed with a paste of cement and water,coats the surface of small and large rocks.. When the aggregates or rocks are mixed with dry cement and water,a fluid mass is formed which can be molded into any shape or size.A chemical reaction takes place when cement is added with water and other ingredients and form a hard and strong matrix which binds all the materials together into a stone-shape like material which has many uses. Concrete is widely used in construction of building or structures,pillars,roads,foundations,bricks/blocks walls,pavements,bridges/overpass,parking structures,dams,pools and polls etc.Concrete is used in different quantities
Concrete is an artificial stone-like material used for various structural purpos-es. The word concrete originates from the Latin word concretus which literally means compact or condensed. Concrete has been used for many amazing things throughout history, including architecture, infrastructure and more. The Egyptians were using early forms of concrete over 5000 years ago to build pyramids. They mixed mud and straw to form bricks and used gypsum and lime to make mortars.
Concrete is the primary material in construction industry. It consists of cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water and other admixtures. Generally Ordinary Portland cement is used in concreting but the production of OPC causes a huge amount of carbon emission and also it uses a huge amount of non-renewable natural resources. The concrete construction practice in use is considered as unsustainable because it consumes a huge quantity of sand, stone and water and 2.5 billion tons of OPC per year. A major component of concrete is cement, which has its own environmental and social impacts and contributes largely to those of concrete.
Also the Romans used concrete to build there strong structures. The idea of concrete impacts us today because we use it to build our everyday structures and make them stronger. So they don't fall apart and collapse. We see concrete building everywhere we go. You might work in a building this is made out of concrete or go to a school that is made out of concrete.
However, most countries as of now do not recycle a large percentage of the concrete; with the leaders being Netherlands and UK both countries which have a consumption of recycled aggregate above 20% (Jahren, 2013). This is not all, according to Jahren, other materials such as used tires and glass can be used as aggregate in concrete for both functional and aesthetically pleasing results. Researchers have presented preliminary results of using different materials from wasted plastic as light weight aggregate in concrete to hemp and even slag from lead production. (Jahren, 2013).
The design of concrete bridges for durability, safety, sustainability and serviceability against various aggressive environments is also discussed. Durable concrete should be a quality concrete to avoid serious problem. Engineers must ensure the good quality of the bridges during its service life. Ensuring the safety and serviceability of bridges must be consider together with the future maintenance cost not only the first cost of construction and design. Having good strength properties, low maintenance cost over the service life and good durability characteristics are factors to produce good, strong and quality concrete
Concrete materials are still a dominant material for construction due to its advantages suchas workability, low cost and fire resistance as well as its low maintenance cost. It is formed from a hardened mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and some admixture. Massive exploration of the natural resources for producing concrete affect to the environment condition and global warning. We have responsibility to reduce the effect of the application of concrete materials to environmental impact. The concrete should be used as efficient as possible.
From the late 7th century BCE, temples, in particular, slowly began to be converted into more durable stone edifices; some even had a mix of the two materials. Some scholars have argued that certain decorative features of stone column capitals and elements of the entablature evolved from the skills of the carpenter displayed in more ancient, wooden architectural elements. The stone of choice was either limestone protected by a layer of marble dust stucco or even better, pure white marble. Also, carved stone was often polished with chamois to provide resistance to water
“We have demonstrated the ability to make a variety of decorative concrete products such as countertops, plant holders and benches. The products contain traditional sand and aggregate all held together in a concrete mix by the calcium carbonate cement.” (Calera, 2015) Future:
Even though the concrete material is strong in terms of compression it is weak in tension. If the tensile strength is weak, the bottom surface of the concrete will fail. To compromise, steel is usually used inside concrete to strengthen and improve the tensile strength of concrete material. While doing this process, it is important for the steel material to have necessary deformations that are required to support strong bonding of the materials and locking between two structures. When steel is surrounded by concrete mass, it becomes an important part of two materials thus forming Reinforced Concrete.