Positive And Negative Effects Of Interactioning Organisms

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INTRODUCTION Organisms require the interaction with other biotic and abiotic factors for a harmonious existence in this nature and is crucial to its existence as well as the functioning of the whole ecosystem (Elton 1968).Depending upon the strength, duration, direction of their effects and mechanism of the interaction,these interactions can be further classified and it spans from species interacting only once in their lifetime (e.g. pollination) to those which completes their entire life in another (e.g. endosymbiosis). The interactions may be detrimental as consumption of the other as in the case of predation, herbivory, or cannibalism or may be advantageous to both as in mutualism. It is not mandatory that the effects of interactions are always direct.It can be also incidental through mediaries such as shared resources or common enemies. Positive and negative interactions are the two types of interactions based on whether the interactions are beneficial or harmful to at least one of the interacting partners . Positive interactions may benefit both the partners or it may be beneficial to only one partner. The benefits can be food, shelter, substratum or transportation. Two major types of beneficial interactions are mutualism or symbiosis and commensalism. On the other hand negative interactions are those interactions in which one of the interacting population is benefited and the other is harmed .Ammensalism, Parasitism, Predation and
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