Positive And Negative Leadership Styles

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Leadership research has mostly focused on analyzing as to which traits, behaviours and styles of a leader are more effective or less effective with regard to achievement of individual and organizational goals. Positive leadership styles are reported to facilitate the flourishing of positive cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects of employee attitudes, thus positively impacting the overall productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of the employees as well as the organization (Fineman, 1996; Fredrickson, 1998; Seligman, 2002; Staw, Sutton and Pellod, 1994). The negative leadership styles may also seem to achieve the organizational goals and help the organization obtain a competitive advantage, viz-a-viz its competitors but it is not without negative repercussions for the individuals and for the organizations in the long run. Most of these
*Professor, MAIMS, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies repercussions manifest themselves in the form of low esteem, high frustration, stress reactions and helplessness among employees which gradually lead to apathy, withdrawal, work alienation, decreased performance, low job satisfaction, low organizational commitment, and high turnover etc. Leaders portraying a wide range of counter-productive behaviors may actively sabotage their follower’s motivation and well being as well as organization’s tasks, goals and effectiveness (Einarsen et al., 2002). Einarsen and his colleagues (2002) have described four negative

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