Positivism: Critical Theory And Criticism

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POSITIVISM

Positivisim is philosophy of science that is derived from

INTERPRETIVISM

Interpretivism is also known as Antipositivism is another philosophy in social science paradigm. It clearly Interpretivists belevies that researcher should aim at understanding the

CRITICAL THEORY

According to Horkheimer’s critical theory definition is appropriate if it meets all the three criteria that is- it should be explanatory, normative as well as practical, which means it must explain what is wrong current social reality, identify the key stakeholders of change, and provide clear norms and achievable practical goals for social transformation.

I have selected critical theory as my paradigm because both critical theory and feminist theories
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Adorno and Max Horkheimer who were Frankfurt School Philosophers. It is one of the very important texts of Critical Theory, it aims to explores the socio psychological status which considered to be responsible for the failure of the Age of Enlightenment. It is one of the most searching critique of modernity written by European intellectuals of Frankfurt School.
Dialectic of Enlightenment is product of wartime exile. It first appeared as Philosophical Fragments titled in 1944. This title became the subtitle when the book 1947 when it was published. Book opens with an unattractive assessment of the modern West.
He asks, how can the progress of medicine, modern science and industry promise to release people from ignorance, disease and cruel mind upsetting work, and yet people willingly believe fascist ideology and knowingly practice genocide and develop mortal weapons of mass destruction? Reason, they answer, has become irrational.

Moreover, Horkheimer and Adorno do not think that modern science and scientism are the only culprits. This tendency of rational movement becoming irrational revert arises earlier. Indeed, they cite scriptures and Greek philosophers as contributor to this regressive
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What motivates such triple domination is an unreasonable fear of unknown: “Human believes themselves free when there is no longer anything unknown.”

In an unfree society whose culture follows so called growth no matter what the cost, that is when exploitation or destruction persists. The means of destruction is more sophisticated in the modern West, and the exploitation is direct than outright slavery, but blind fear driven domination continues, with greater global consequences. And the engine driving this process is expanding capitalist economy by scientific research and the latest technologies.

The author further says the fundamental mistake in many interpretations of Dialectic of Enlightenment occurs when readers take such notions to be theoretical definition of not changing categories rather than critical judgments about historical leanings. Adorno and Horkheimer are not saying that myth is “natural” force of enlightenment nor they claiming that enlightenment is the thought that fundamental change is impossible. Such resistance to change characterize both ancient myths of fate and modern dedication to the facts.

CRITICAL SOCIAL

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