The existing research traditions that I have looked at to outline are Positivism, Critical Theory and Functionalism. In Positivism the discipline origins are rooted in philosophy, poetry, social science and natural science. Auguste Comte was seen as a founding father in Philosophy, sociology and positivism. Positivism came about post French revolution and Comte saw it as a new social order to remedy to what had just happened in the French revolution. Its basis lies in the sciences, looking at scientific methods to uncover laws and study society.
Research philosophy Research philosophy lay down the background of how researchers understand the world, the choice of research philosophy reflect our knowledge, experiences, preconceptions, and research capability. Thus our knowledge, experiences and etc., which underpin the philosophy choice, will determine our research paradigm, strategy, design and method. (Saunders et al., 2009, p. 128-129). When Bryman describes ontology view, he introduces the objectivism and constructivism as two antithetical dimensions. (p22) However, Saunders 2009 p.119 advocates that positivism can be understood through both ontology and epistemology views.
Although Hobbes is sometimes called the founder of the twentieth-century totalitarianism, Kleinerman believes him to be more a founder of liberalism (Kleinerman, 2006). This distinction clearly shows how disparate reactions to Hobbes’s theory may be found among the political philosophers. He undoubtedly left a significant mark on modern understanding of political theory and the highly debatable issues of political power, system of governance or the human nature (Sommerville, 2014). Often portrayed as a strikingly original thinker, Hobbes was one of a number of early modern theorists who argued that sovereigns possess absolute power over their subjects and who especially favoured absolute monarchy. This paper surveys Hobbes’s views on absolute and indivisible sovereignty and on the origins and nature of government and the powers of sovereigns.
Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, is arguably one of the most important philosophers in terms of the development of twentieth-century continental philosophy. Husserl develops phenomenology as a new rigorous eidetic science of consciousness (the study of essence) which subsequently inspires a generation of philosophers and social scientists in Germany, France, and Great Britain. First this paper will look at the background from which Husserl’s philosophy emerged. Secondly, Husserl’s main philosophical periods will be discussed. Thirdly, the essay will examine the phenomenological reduction in detail and explore subsequent criticism.
In an attempt to understand how science evolves, Thomas Kuhn proposed the idea that in a particular scientific discipline and in a specific time period there exist a leading paradigm. This was in response to the commonly held belief that science evolves in a cumulative manner. In addition, George Ritzer uses Khun’s theory as background in order to make the social world easier to understand. He believed that Sociology is a multiple paradigm science, which embodied three major paradigms. Namely, the social facts, the social definition and the social behaviour paradigms, but he found that these paradigms were too one sided in their approach.
To explain some phenomenon is to give an account of why it behaves in a particular way or why particular regularities occur. Detailed description can provide the beginnings of the explanation. Explanatory research can be qualitative and quantitative research. Normally in quantitative research, hypothetic-deductive theories come out from this type of research design, (Norman Blaikie,
POSITIVISM Positivisim is philosophy of science that is derived from INTERPRETIVISM Interpretivism is also known as Antipositivism is another philosophy in social science paradigm. It clearly Interpretivists belevies that researcher should aim at understanding the CRITICAL THEORY According to Horkheimer’s critical theory definition is appropriate if it meets all the three criteria that is- it should be explanatory, normative as well as practical, which means it must explain what is wrong current social reality, identify the key stakeholders of change, and provide clear norms and achievable practical goals for social transformation. I have selected critical theory as my paradigm because both critical theory and feminist theories
(Nothing depends upon this division.) Each group stresses a certain set of factors for explaining modernity and its origins: first, the evolution of modernity and its ills can be traced to the flawed beginnings of philosophy and rationalism; second, a change in the nature of philosophy from the ancients and modems explains modernity; third, a break with the Judaic-Christian traditions as well as with classical philosophy provides an explanation; fourth and lastly, there is a group who explains modernity primarily by political developments. In the first group, Nietzsche and Heidegger, Rorty and Derrida, as well as other post-modernists have traced modernity to a rationalism that is the essential core of Western thought from its inception. A litany of modem ills is attached to the original misconception of
It also encourages group efforts and critical investigation of the natural world through scientific argumentation and reasoning. Peer review makes scientific claims to pass under scrutiny and, as a result, helps to root confidence in the claim. In general, epistemic knowledge is key to determining the role of scientific knowledge in identifying and addressing societal and technological
On the other hand there is the investigation and observation of the scientific method, a logical and intricate process of research that identifies new insights and provides a framework to test their authenticity. In this essay I will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each approach and come to a conclusion about which is a more valuable tool to modern day psychology. Karl Popper (July 1902 - September