Agnosticism is the fact that humans will not be able to know the nature of what god is or anything that is not within our plane of existence; they are neither a believer or a non-believer. Relativism is that your beliefs, knowledge and truths are subjective to your culture, society and your history. Social constructionism may lead to this because the theory is that everything is all going according to a social process and the truths that humans view as truths are only truths because a certain society views them as truths which begs the question whether or not they are universal truths and whether or not these truths could be something that has been fabricated by an individual long ago. Social constructionism overall is a very interesting theory that can be seen in many different ways. With the introduction of this theory to religion it can change how people look at religion as a whole and may very well alter individuals view of the basis of what religion is in a very major way.
Popper was a staunch positivist in suggesting that we need to look attheories and evidence to test them.. One of the problems however, of the positivist approach is that not all ideas are readily quantifiable and there may be problems of pursuing a positivist approach in only looking to test ideas which can be easily tested. This criticism is not however confined to positivist sociologists. Not all sociologists would necessarily believe that we should move towards positivism. There is no one theory of contemporary sociology which is accepted by all sociologists. The original sociologists assumed that the study of sociology would help society to progress to better understanding and this would therefore in turn help to shape better human systems.
For instance, positivist approach believes that knowledge is only produced through scientific approach. And reality is independent of any phenomena; facts are established by taking apart a phenomenon to examine its component parts. Yet from my experiences I argue that the alternative view i.e. social constructivist approaches is best because they believe that the best way to understand any phenomenon is to view it in its context. They see all quantification as limited in nature,
(p22) However, Saunders 2009 p.119 advocates that positivism can be understood through both ontology and epistemology views. It raises the confusion whether positivism should belong to ontology view and be connected to objectivism like what Bryman said, or positivism should not be tied to objectivism and can also be comprehended through epistemology view like what Saunders proposed. In 2014, Hanson stated that the root of positivism could be constructive instead of being tied only to objectivism. This makes us realize that our thesis might not be limited to the view of Bryman. When we discuss the positivism, we are set to think both in epistemological way and ontological way and then we will distinguish our philosophical choice of view with realism.
Interviews using researcher-constructed questionnaires with motorcycle dealers and business entrepreneurs to know the situation of sales, basic marketing strategies, and some recent comments and personal thoughts about the development trend of the future market which could be valuable for further strategies. Positivism versus Phenomenology Positivism is a position that upholds that the objective of knowledge is basically to describe our experience with particular phenomena. Accordingly, the objective of science is mere to focus based on observation and measurement. Positivists believe that knowledge which is beyond what can be seen and measured is impossible. Positivist viewed science as the way to know the truth and to discover the world with the assumption of being able to predict, understand and control it.
Positivism and interpretivism are two perspectives of epistemology，first I want to talk about positivism. Positivism is a scientific way to find the truth，it means that people should use scientific study to know and explain the social world，such as observation，measurement and experimentation，only through these ways，that people can get knowledge about the society. There are five important principles in positivism，they are objectivism,empiricism，scientific method，value freedom and instrumental knowledge.As for interpretivism，it pays more attention to human behaviors and the meanings，some people think scientific method may not totally gain the knowledge about human itself，it can not help to understand the meaning of social facts，so they use interpretivism to understand the world（Fulcher，J.&Scott，J.2007），there are also five key points of interpretivism，they are subjectivism，meaning，interpretation，value freedom and
Quine’s Naturalism Abstract: Quine thinks epistemology is contained in natural science, given that the subject of epistemological study is a physical. He claims that philosophy is continuous with natural science: “The new setting of epistemology is in psychology.” (Quine: 1969, 259).This implies that when deciding whether an observation is epistemologically prior or not, we should choose whatever is coming from sensory receptors, unlike Gestalten psychology suggested, we should not choose the one we are aware of. As it is seen, Quine defines his naturalism through natural sciences and he introduced a new physical perspective known as naturalized epistemology. However naturalism is very important element which affects his philosophy from the
When an epistemology is based on the positivism philosophy, the objectives and the nature of knowledge assumes that everything is based on causality when it comes to knowledge that exists. Secondly, an epistemology based on realism assumes that the nature of knowledge is based on the observable phenomenon (Saunders & Tosey, The layers of research design, 2013). Essentially, insufficient data provides inaccurate information, and some phenomenon may require proper inaccurate information were not collected effectively. Third, when an epistemology is based on the interpretivism philosophy the nature of knowledge is based on the social phenomenon and subjective meanings that change the meaning based on the situation. Finally, when an epistemology is based on pragmatism, the nature of knowledge is dependent on the nature of the questions that are asked and not the nature of the
Phenomenology does not give scientific facts about the world around us, but tries to explain how the world appears through the individual’s perception. Phenomenologists do not accept the separation between the subject and the object, which is highlighted in Positivism. Positivism focuses on the separation between the real world and how it is viewed. They argue that is essential to think that the subject has a great relationship with the object, because according to them, it is through the object of the real world that we make sense of our own experiences. The subject refers to the individual world, while the object refers to the real world.