This essay is occupied with analyzing whether the agentic state theory developed by Professor Stanley Milgram is a valid explanation for the behaviour of participants in obedience experiments. It starts with defining and describing the abovementioned theory and continues with providing academic research evidence, in order to illustrate the arguments for and against the statement presented above. The essay ends by providing the key conclusions drawn from the analysis, while also attempting to give an answer to whether Milgram’s agentic state theory could indeed be characterized as valid in explaining the behaviour of participants in obedience experiments. The agentic state theory is one of the two main theories that Milgram has developed (the other is the theory of conformism), in order to explain the behaviour of its participants in its obedience
Rationalism is beliefs in the external world that give somethings like a power or transcendent being. Empiricism is belief in sensation experience that looks like a science. I think both concepts are conflict in some situation and compatible in some situation. For example, you can’t test or examination about the God’s existence but you can’t say it is true or false or meaningless because may be verified in the future. The paradigm of Positivism seems to be combined of Rationalism and Empiricism.
He argues that if we seek to answer the question of what it means to exist, we have to study the unique entity that has an understanding of what it means to be (i.e. Dasein) and how that entity’s existence differs from that of all other entities. In understanding the distinction between Dasein and other entities, we are able to understand the unique phenomena of Dasein’s existence, that is, being-in-the-world. Heidegger rejects the assumption maintained in many philosophical frameworks that all forms of existence are equivalent; instead, he claims that there is an ontological difference between
Besides this, RR is grounded in the cognitive function of consciousness just as the GWT. Furthermore, Dalton (1997) and Elitzur (1997), both criticized this ground as not deep enough to address the ‘hard problem of consciousness,’ fundamental element of wisdom. In other words, Dalton and Elitzure see the theory as useful but only cosmetic. Cohen & Dennett’s (2011) submission support Vervaeke’s grounding of the RR in cognitive function. Cohen & Dennett posited that consciousness cannot be separated from function.
The constructivist grounded theory approach to ontology and epistemology is related to the traditional phenomenological method, but differs in its use of inductive methodology that has the capacity of generating systematic theory from a systematic research (Charmaz 2006). Constructivist grounded theory is a relativist ontological position that leaves behind the traditional grounded theorists' subscription to discovery of truth that emerges from data representative of a "real" reality (Charmaz 2003)). Grounded theory is focused on conceptualising what is going on in a social context using a systematic approach to research. Therefore, the use of constructivist grounded theory approach in this study is expected to shed light on the rehabilitation needs of the older Igbo people and how they are affected by existing tradition and an evolving socio-cultural
According to Weaver and Olson (2006), paradigm is defined as the patterns of beliefs which regulate inquiry within a discipline while Taylor, Kermode and Roberts (2007) stated that a paradigm is a broad view or perspective of something. A paradigm consists of three fundamentals including the belief about the nature of knowledge, a methodology and the criteria for validity (Mac Naughton, Rolfe and Siraj-Blatchford, 2001). Overall, the function of paradigm is to express an idea and act as a tool to conduct normal science which allows it to be applied by
If the argument is sound, we must necessarily accept the conclusion that we do not know that we have hands. We ordinarily take having hands to be something we know. This argument, if sound, thus pushes us into skepticism. Nevertheless, this essay will show how our intuitions and an examination of the argument suggest that the argument is in fact sound, in spite of its skeptical implications. Thereafter, an objection from Dretske will be considered.
Positivism can be understood as the idea that the methods of the natural sciences should be used to study human and social matters. In this essay I will be explaining how positivism gave substance to the idea whilst paying particular attention to the role of induction and deduction. Positivism has had some influence in Education and the essay will attempt to outline and critically discuss some of these influences. The knowledge that we acquire is from observations with the aid of our senses. This is how we interact with the world by being in and partaking in it.
Frege and Geach on Assertion In this paper I will analyse Frege’s view on Assertion (as discussed in his papers “Sense and Reference” and “Thought”) followed by an account of Geach’s defence of this idea. Frege holds relevance in the history of analytical philosophy for proposing a sense to bridge the gap between what is said and what is heard and thus educating us about what is ‘expressed’. But among his rather rigid theory about how language works, he also advances an even more obscure theory about how assertion works. On Frege’s account, an assertion is any thought acknowledged as a judgement. There is no other parameter for an assertion to be called so.
Jager (2015) defines idealism as a theory that states that our reality is shaped by our thoughts and ideas. Realism on the other hand deals with the fact that reality has an absolute existence independent from our thoughts, ideas and even consciousness. This essay intends to contrast idealism and realism that is outlining the differences between the two theories. The first part is the comparison of the two theories, the second part discusses the differences between the theories with examples to elaborate. In conclusion the essay purpose that the reader is able to differentiate with a clear understanding of the two theories in the context of international relations.