Depending on the paradigm adopted, it would be instrumental in setting the conceptual framework and the research questions that are posed for investigation in a particular study. The two main philosophical perspectives for research are the positivist and the interpretivist paradigms which guide the conceptual/theoretical frameworks and the methods used for investigation. The positivist paradigm is quantitative in nature and will therefore use a problem statement which reflects this. A qualitative problem statement is used for an interpretivist guided study and is framed from a broader, more exploratory standpoint. For a positivist philosophy which uses deductive reasoning, the ontological belief is that nature is tangible and therefore an investigation into variables and their relationships would be based on empirical data and its extrapolations.
According to Wilson (2010, pp. 9-10), positivistic approach is more objective in nature and not prone to personal biases. It also takes objectivism as the related ontological stance since external realities are beyond the participating organisations’ control. On Burrell’s grid, it assumes more towards functionalist standpoint.
Such Geometry is one example of a situation that not possible to observation. The paradigm of Positivism seem to be combine of Rationalism and Empiricism. Positivism focus on A priori knowledge same Rationalism but in difference point, Positivist beliefs in nature of reality that can be verified by science process but don’t belief in the innate. They’re trying to explanation about the reality for warranted beliefs and Empricism is rejected the innate knowledge but emphasize truth-reliable process. It’s look like the one of science process, Such measurement which needs to be reliability and generalize outcomes.
This chapter explains how and why different research methods are selected by the author. The author has made logical justification of different research methodology techniques in accordance with the aim and objectives of the research. Research methodology helps the researcher to get a systematic solution of the research problems. Kumar (2008) mentioned research methodology as the science of conducting research. Cottrell and McKenzie (2011) argued good research should be followed by the well-established previous theories.
This research mainly aims at answering ‘why and how’. This type of research is generally used by doctors and psychologists. According to Mitchell & Jolley, 2012., In a descriptive research, a phenomena taken, is illustrated in such a detail, so as to fill in any missing parts , leading to expansion and better understanding of the topic . Probability vs Non-Probability sampling method Since most data assembling methods involve a choice of experimental subject. This choice can be through use of probability-based methods, where the selection is done by some "mechanical” procedure, involving lists of random numbers, or the equivalent.
For instance, positivist approach believes that knowledge is only produced through scientific approach. And reality is independent of any phenomena; facts are established by taking apart a phenomenon to examine its component parts. Yet from my experiences I argue that the alternative view i.e. social constructivist approaches is best because they believe that the best way to understand any phenomenon is to view it in its context. They see all quantification as limited in nature,
Chapter 3 Methodology Research Design Different types of research design are selected according to the needs of the research. In this specific study, research used to intend mixed research design because this study is depending upon both quantitative and qualitative data. The means of data collection will be gathered through primary and secondary sources. Research Approach To conduct a research, it is necessary to determine what approach is being implemented as typically scientific investigation involves alternating among induction and deduction. Research approaches are based on the procedures and plans of research that extent the assumptions to detailed methods of interpretation, data collection and analysis.
Humanistic approach is developed because of the limitations of behavioral and psychodynamic approaches (Jarvis, 2000, p. 61). Moreover, humanistic approach is taken a positive perspective unlike the psychodynamic perspective. Lastly, humanistic perspective’s theories are more subjective and hard to be tested compared to the psychodynamic approach (Jarvis, 2000, p. 74).
When Bryman describe ontology view, he introduces the objectivism and constructivism as two antithetical dimensions. (p22) However, Saunders 2009 p.119 advocates that positivism can be understood through both ontology and epistemology views. It raises the confusion whether positivism should belong to ontology view and be connected to objectivism like what Bryman said or positivism should not be tied to objectivism and can also be comprehended through epistemology view like what Saunders proposed. In 2014, Hanson stated that the root of positivism could be constructive instead of being tied only to objectivism. This makes us realize that our thesis might not be limited to the view of Bryman.
There are two kinds of research methods through which learner gather different types of information. These two research methods are qualitative and quantitative method. Qualitative method is subjective and it has lower number of respondents. Respondents are not randomly selected for this method. There is a specific number through which they collect data.