The beginning of knowledge comes from metaphysics, theological and positivism. And these put much on a critical stance in the discourse of method. Little (2011), explains that method is a prescriptive body of doctrines to guide inquiry. The ideal of understanding social world underlies in whether to embrace and use principles and guiding procedures of the natural world where positivism dominates in the epistemological consideration. Atkinson & Hammersley (2007) explain that this method has a considerable influence onto social scientist, in promoting the status of survey research and the quantitative analysis Positivism refers to an epistemological position which calls for the application of the methods of natural sciences to the study of
QUESTION A Marxist Perspective, Its central aim is to provide an empirically well-founded description of phenomenon, to get the social implications; and to illuminate the historical process through which this phenomenon came to exist in the real world. Additionally, its aims at comprehend and explain reality using themes to make analysis and this is confirmed by research. This has methods such as phenomenology and Ethnomethodology. It produces knowledge on a social reality in order to transform it. Therefore understanding reality becomes a main goal to drive the historical process and historical world.
Before I evaluate I would like to discuss what media theory is, and how we use it. Theory is a systematic way of thinking, it is an idea used to justify a course of action. It describes reality, it’s a heuristic device and helps in understanding the world. It is grounded in epistemology. A theory in scientific terms is most familiar but it renders the same concept, it is an explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is obtained through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed, using a written, pre-defined, protocol of observations and experiments.
Furthermore, the ontology of this particular social theory is concerned with reality. Reality is thought of as an individual construct dependent to different situations while applied to hermeneutical phenomenological research. Hereafter, it is based on the belief that realities are multiple. In addition, we tackled on two important people who are important in hermeneutical phenomenology. These people were Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
The purpose of this book is to explore various avenues of the existing ‘Age of Fact’ and the urgent role of the social analyst to integrate the particular history, biography, and social structure of humankind. According to Mills, the sociological imagination is to be aware of the idea of social structure and to use it with sensibility. He noticeably believes that the sociological imagination can only initiate and direct the individual towards the synoptic internalization and realization of social, cultural, and political realm, which would assist the social researcher to transform the understandings of his scientific experience. Subsequently, he validated the social-science study through translating the private issues to public issues.
Is Sociology a science? Just like the question on whether we shaped society or society shaped us, it is controversial on whether sociology is a science or not. From my perspective, I do agree that sociology is a science and in this essay, I will first talk about what is sociology and science, why is sociology considered science by sociologist. The definition of science is that it “bases knowledge on empirical evidence gained through direct, systematic observation” (Thompson & Hickey, 2011, p.30). The key idea to science is observation where it encompass tangible evidence and empirical proof.
What is the difference between the null hypothesis and the research hypothesis? A hypothesis is a potential explanation for some phenomenon, such as a cause-and-effect relationship, that can be tested to be proven or disproven. The research hypothesis (H1) is the potential explanation that will either be proven or disproven and that was inspired by a theory or observations, and we accept the research hypothesis if it is proven correct through experimentation. The null hypothesis (H0) is a statement that falsifies the research hypothesis. We reject the research hypothesis if the null hypothesis is proven through
According to Yin (2014, 23) the value which case study plays as a research method in social science, as it helps investigate and produce empirical data through following a set of procedures. Yin 2014 further discussed case study design, techniques and analysis which are suggested as essential steps that researchers ought to follow for a successful case study development. These steps Yin propose range from preparing to use the case study to designing case studies; preparing to collect case study evidence; collecting case study evidence; analyzing case study evidence and lastly reporting case
The positivist believe that science is only basis for real knowledge. Reason for conducting a positivism is determine laws which can be normalized in explaining the human behavior in the world. Positivist make use of observation and experiment in the study. • ONTOLOGY The Positivism research tradition adherent a realist ontology. Positivist argue human beings to discover the world which is made of quantifiable, perceptible and detectable by giving it sense and description.