Humans must endure life and its ups and downs in order to become a finished product worthy of God’s kingdom. (Hick, pg.85) In addition, the author objects to the antitheist argument that God is limited or weak in his power. After reading Swinburne “Is there a God” I believe the strongest objection is to his first objection to freewill. If humans were all good how would we ever be able to
Freud’s perspective is people projecting father figure on the “God”. Obviously his theory seems constructed specifically to account for those theistic religion, the nontheistic religion does not suitable for
How do I Make Moral choices, in a World of Moral Ambiguity? A desire for meaning would also include obtaining some kind of “identity,” or individualism. Yet, society or someone will try to force their “ideal” moral system onto everyone else. “Thinking may be “good for nothing” in the world, but in the mind it is good for guidance—not legislation, but guidance” (Bruehl 193). If you base your moral standards off everyone else’s, even when in truth you think in a different way, then in the eyes of an existentialist, you have been degraded and reduced to an object.
According to Merton, the manifest function has intentional outcomes whereas in the latent function there are unintentional ones. External criticisms of functionalism There are a number of other criticisms of functionalism. One is that functionalism is not in line with scientific thinking and only explains the existence of different societies in terms of their effectiveness. Marxists would add a
Tocqueville observes that America’s recent birth creates the only natural experiment in world history, allowing ‘political scientists’ like himself to “watch the natural quiet growth of society” . Holding the societal characteristics of Americans and Europeans equal, Tocqueville can isolate the exact causal mechanism – religion – that defined America’s national character since its historical inception. Religion also primed America for a divergent fate from Europe , along a comparatively rapid path toward democracy. Conversely, Marx asserts that we cannot examine change by reasoning forward and rationalising why things had to be. Marx attributes his contemporaries’ failure to recognise the real basis for change to the Hegelian tendency to hark
However, it shows that handicapping those who have excelled in an area of life or have greater ability than another is an injustice. It is just as unfair if not more unfair to put a handicap on someone who has greater strengths than another. When Harrison Bergeron stood up for individuality, society shut him down. In the real world, society shuts down those who speak out for individuality by shaming them or making them outcasts. Kurt Vonnegut created a universe that put the rules of society before the life of an individual.
Philip Kain, a Professor of Philosophy at Santa Clara University, wrote about the nature of guilt in his article “Understanding Guilt”. Furthermore, He contends that guilt is an emotion in which humans feel conflicted about not having acted on their morals. Kain’s study indicates that 98% of people act on their guilt. The debater against moral obligation interprets this to mean that if most actions are not based on a sense of duty, but rather a fear of mental consequences, then they are not moral decisions. In this line of reasoning, a nativist organization would have more “moral” grounds because its actions are done through a sense of duty, rather than a self-serving conscience.
The theory of Deontology has its flaws as well and this essay will present three criticisms of deontology namely that deontology relies on moral absolutes, allows acts that make the world a worse place, two permissible duties that are right can conflict with each other and will demonstrate these flaws with relevant case studies and dilemmas. To begin with, this theory relies on moral absolutes which can be defined as actions that are entirely right or entirely wrong. Deontologists cannot consider the consequences of their actions, even if the consequences of a particular action bring about more harm than the act itself. Deontology theory says that certain types of actions are either absolutely right or wrong, but provides no way in which to distinguish which action may be right or wrong and thus duties and principles can conflict (Preston, 2007). For instance,
Hubristic Ignorance Versus Oblivious Naivety Morality, the judgement of right from wrong, is dependent on one’s conscience, yet the corruption due to ignorance leads to vileness and immorality. In F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, the inevitability to commit immoral acts, as a mean to achieve the characters’ ideals, satirizes the social construct of that bestowed an incorrect sense of value on its inhabitants. False idolization of the personified American Dream, inherited social status, and wealth leads them on a path that defies the words in the Catechism of worshipping the one and only God. Furthermore, their dishonesty also breaks the rule of being truthful when Gatsby disguises himself as a wealthy higher class man with lies about
They argue that it has many major flaws, but they acknowledge that parts of theory have some truth to it. Throughout this essay, cultural relativism will be questioned, but also supported in some ways. The idea of cultural relativism reminds me of a sociological term--ethnocentrism--that essentially means the opposite. Ethnocentrism is essentially a bias about your own culture against other cultures. One can only see their culture (usually as dominant to the others), rather than attempting to see the perspective of whatever culture is in question.