Positivist argue human beings to discover the world which is made of quantifiable, perceptible and detectable by giving it sense and description. The ontology of positivism research paradigm advocate the scientific research and stresses in order for something to exist must be proven through experiment and observation. The positivist do not reject self-evident proposals particularly on the unknown phenomena. The positivist argues that reality is not influenced by social construction. • EPISTEMOLOGY Positivist support the idea of John Locke which states that human mind is blank at birth.
The paradigm of Positivism seems to be combined of Rationalism and Empiricism. Positivism focus on a priori knowledge same Rationalism but in difference point, Positivist beliefs in nature of reality that can be verified by science process but don’t belief in the innate. The innate knowledge seems to be skeptically for them and trying to examination about the reality for support warranted beliefs. While Empiricism is rejected the innate knowledge but emphasizes truth-reliable process. It’s look like the one of science process, Such measurement which needs to be reliability and generalize outcomes.
Interviews using researcher-constructed questionnaires with motorcycle dealers and business entrepreneurs to know the situation of sales, basic marketing strategies, and some recent comments and personal thoughts about the development trend of the future market which could be valuable for further strategies. Positivism versus Phenomenology Positivism is a position that upholds that the objective of knowledge is basically to describe our experience with particular phenomena. Accordingly, the objective of science is mere to focus based on observation and measurement. Positivists believe that knowledge which is beyond what can be seen and measured is impossible. Positivist viewed science as the way to know the truth and to discover the world with the assumption of being able to predict, understand and control it.
So, for this study constructivism theory as theoretical perspective is selected for qualitative approach to gain the meaning, understanding, experiences and opinion of the stakeholders about prospect and quality of teaching and learning in universities. The approbation of the constructivist theory in this research is based on the assumptions that “all knowledge and meaning are contingent upon human practices, being constructed in and out of interaction between individuals and their world, and developed and transmitted within an essentially social context” (Crotty, 1998, p. 42). Human beings in the constructivist spirit are described as not only engaging themselves with the world and making sense of it, but “they are all born into the world of meaning” (Crotty, 1998, p. 54) This theoretical approach is adopted to let the (stakeholders) participants to discern their understanding and perceptions about the quality of teaching and learning in universities and in this way the researcher has access both directly and indirectly assess the quality through observations and stakeholders’ approach and their perceptions seek to better assist and understand the quality in teaching and learning. The stakeholders’ approach has been used in literatures since Freeman (1984) introduced in his book strategic Management: A stakeholder approach. The concept of the stakeholder approach to quality has been labeled as an effective tool for organizational improvement and sustainability (Boesso & Kumar, 2009; Elijido-Ten, 2007; Freeman, 1994; Goodpaster, 1991; Johansson, 2008; Mitchell, Agle, & Wood, 1997; Rowley, 1997).
For instance, positivist approach believes that knowledge is only produced through scientific approach. And reality is independent of any phenomena; facts are established by taking apart a phenomenon to examine its component parts. Yet from my experiences I argue that the alternative view i.e. social constructivist approaches is best because they believe that the best way to understand any phenomenon is to view it in its context. They see all quantification as limited in nature,
Every research problems have been influenced by the epistemological perspective, for instance researchers identified two suggestions for a particular management research problem but the best suggest is selected on the basis of scope and validity given recommendations (Jackson 2012, p.44). Epistemology can be called as logical way of
Epistemology: The epistemology in post-positivism values objectivity. It is assumed that there is no possibility to maintain absolute distance from the researched. Methodology: Findings are evaluated based on pre-existing knowledge and critique. They are deceptive because when replicated they seem try but they are likely to be proven wrong. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are incorporated.
Its basis lies in the sciences, looking at scientific methods to uncover laws and study society. It was a way of understanding based on science. Comte wrote a series of text published between 1830 – 1842 “The Course in Positive Philosophy”. Positivism was seen as observing the circular dependence
Positivism can be understood as the idea that the methods of the natural sciences should be used to study human and social matters. In this essay I will be explaining how positivism gave substance to the idea whilst paying particular attention to the role of induction and deduction. Positivism has had some influence in Education and the essay will attempt to outline and critically discuss some of these influences. The knowledge that we acquire is from observations with the aid of our senses. This is how we interact with the world by being in and partaking in it.
Political philosophy tends to provide us with ‘ought to be’ propositions and according to Pareto (cite), ‘ought’ propositions ‘do not correspond to any concrete reality’. The scientific study of politics started with the shift from normative approach to an empirical approach. Positivists stated that the highest form of human knowledge is scientific knowledge (Strauss, year). And this only implies the downturn of the pre-scientific knowledge. Scholars of political thought therefore adopted the methods of the natural sciences that put political analysis in a scientific way where deductive and logical methods were replaced by inductive and precise methods (Gettel, 1914).