Methodology In order to analyze the distributional effects of access to basic services on household welfare, we use Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA) method (see Demery, 2000 and Davoodi et al., 2003 for the description of the BIA method). In order to take account of the multidimensional character of the well-being and the simultaneous nature of its dimensions, we use the Structural Equations Model (SEM) with latent variables. This section describes the SEM and the data sources used. 3.1. The Structural Equations Model (SEM) Our goal here is to provide a measurement of well-being using the capability approach.
Productive forces and relations of production are the key concepts of his analysis. Those are relevant each other and related with other social relations. He sees entering into production relations is indispensable and independent of the will (Marx). Production relations specify general process of social, economic and political life. Marx’s ideas can be best explained by:
Enabling state which is a state that allows society to choose to progress. Developemental individaulism which is the notion where by individuals decide to advance or enchance . Lastly qualified welfare where by the state gives individuals welfare that will help them. Though modern liberals increase the role of the state which limits the state's power to providing welfare and supervising the economy , it does not necessarily mean that modern liberalism supports unlimited state
The economic version of public interest theory is probably the most well known. It suggests that regulation is a response to imperfections in the market known as market failures. Correction of these failures increases the community’s general welfare and is thus in the public interest. Also those who press for regulation in response to market failures are agents of the public interest. Market failures can be defined by categories of monopoly, externalities and public goods.
Becker’s Model Gary Becker is one of the economists who developed an economic approach to human behavior. One of his models is on investment in human capital. Human capital is embodied in individuals in the form of knowledge and skills. Expenditure on education is thus an investment in human capital since education increases the chance of future earnings, making life better. In his model, Becker showed how the investment in human capital is linked with the distribution of earnings.
Economists advance the principle that CBA is relevant to public decisions which involve allocation of scarce resources and generate a good and /or bad consequence for social welfare and as i have explained above this is usually the public sector and hence helpful in that
The basic principles of the New Public Administration were participation, decentralization and representative bureaucracy. NPM referred to a simulacrum of the allocation of resources by competitive markets that suited neoconservative times (Laurence, 2006). he analytical model of NPM depicted by Toonen is particularly useful for evaluating contemporary developments: a business-oriented approach to government;“a quality and performance oriented approach to public management”; an emphasis on improved public service delivery and functional responsiveness; an institutional separation of public demand functions, public provision and public service production functions; a linkage of public demand, provision, and supply units by transactional devices and quality management; wherever possible, the retreat of government institutions in favor of an intelligent use of markets and commercial market enterprises or virtual markets (Laurence, 2006). The starting point is that the traditional bureaucratic structures are too rigid and cumbersome, so that the new public management favors decentralized administration, delegation of discretion, contracting for goods and services, and the use of the market mechanisms of competition and customer service to improve performance (Pfiffner,
211535569 Politics 303 Sthuthukile Gumede Panacea for development theories, in third world states. This essay will firstly offer a definition for development and developing country. Secondly, critically analyze the applicability of the two main theories of development of which are modernization and Dependency. Thirdly, Offer up an alternative for underdeveloped countries using a case study. Lastly, conclude the essay drawing together the information.
But it is important to identify the ap-proach in which these strategies have to be formulated according to the variables offered by the place. Grodach & Loukaitou‐Sideris (2007) have grouped cultural strategies into three models: Entrepre-neurial Strategies, Creative Class Strategies, and Progressive Strate-gies. Each strategy type is based on a normative set of characteristics including strategy goals, the types of cultural projects pursued, geo-graphic focus, and target audience. Entrepreneurial Strategies most clearly pursue a proactive, market-driven approach guided by purely economic objectives; Creative Class Strategies seek economic devel-opment through the provision of quality of life and recreational amenities; and Progressive Strategies follow a more grassroots and neighborhood-based approach to cultural development that seeks to respond more directly to the needs of local communities and arts
By investigating the roots of manageable improvement, the way in which the idea has mixed the thoughts of different controls with a specific end goal to amplify financial and social advancement in an earth inviting way is highlighted. By considering the difficulties that the usage of supportable advancement rehearses experience, the confinements of all the while looking for financial development and ecological supportability can be perceived. This hypothetical learning of supportable improvement can then be connected to examine how economic advancement rehearses have been actualized and to decide how perfect the destinations of feasible improvement are, both in strategy and policy and