The nineteenth century was a period of vast colonisation among Europeans, which involved countries such as France, Britain, Germany and Italy to name a few, competing for colonial empires, the continent of Africa was one of those empires affected by European expansion in what became known as “the scramble for Africa”. Colonisation in Africa partitioned the continent in a relatively short space of time. Europeans effectively partitioned the colonies which became the African states which exist today while comparing and contrasting the experiences of both French and British decolonisation in one French-controlled and one British-controlled African country. This essay will explore the experience of colonisation and the subsequent decolonisation in Algeria by the French and the Gold Coast by the British. There were notable similarities and differences in the French and British colonisation and decolonisation experience which will be illustrated in this essay.
By the early twentieth century, however, much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been colonized by European powers. The European imperialist push into Africa was motivated by three main factors, economic, political, and social. It developed in the nineteenth century following the collapse of the profitability of the slave trade, its abolition and suppression, as well as the expansion of the European capitalist Industrial Revolution. The imperatives of capitalist industrialization—including the demand for assured sources of raw materials, the search for guaranteed markets and profitable investment outlets—spurred the European scramble and the partition and eventual conquest of Africa. Thus the primary motivation for European intrusion was economic.
(World web Online Dictionary.The primary expectation of colonization was to have control politically, besides its goal was to misuse the colonized countries. Colonialism in Africa is wonder or process which has begun between 2800-1960s. It is a phenomenon which played the very similar role with the so called “imperialism”. However one can argue that “imperialism” is an immediate type of colonialism. Colonialism started as aftereffect of change in the method of creation in the European mainland.
The missionaries were very impressed by various elements in Africa and this resulted in the over power of African people. European countries raced to colonize as much as African nations as possible. Neo-colonialism this is the term used to refer continuing domination of former colonies using certain elements such as extra political power and commercial. It operates through applications of the military legislative power and mostly important also though economic. In generally it can be said it’s the ongoing process of the economic mode of colonialism after the colonize territory has achieved its
Africa has one of the most greatest cultures it was even said that “The earliest stages of human evolution began in Africa about seven million years ago.” Early African culture had many great cities and empires like the Kushite/Meroe empire (800B.C.E.-400C.E.). Even though this empire was influenced by Egypt, it developed its own culture, with unique art practices and a writing system. African groups had made contact with other cultures of course and because of this those cultures had influenced the African culture. The Axum empire (100-400 C.E.) had began when Arabic cultures infiltrated Ethiopia in northeast Africa by the seventh century B.C.E., the first Christians arrived from Syria in the fourth century C.E.
Colonialism is the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. In addition, a colony is a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country and occupied by settlers from that country. Following the end of the slave trade, between the period 1871- 1914 European nations rushed on the African continent to exploit its large fields of raw materials and precious metals. Also known as the scramble for Africa, different territories on the continent experienced various forms of colonisation. This paper will focus on the Algerian case.
The Black Man’s Burden In the late-nineteen century, the term new imperialism became an element of politics implemented by many European powers to impose their supremacy around the globe. Between 1870 and 1914, as a result of the Great Depression (1873-1879), imperialistic powers such as Britain, France, Germany, and Belgium, constructed colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa in order to exploit their resources and their labor . After the decline of the transatlantic slave trade by the late 1860s, a change occurred around 1880 when France and Britain led European nations in the “scramble of Africa,” which divided the continent from 1880 to 1914. Indeed, after king Leopold II of Belgium conquered most of the Congo River with the excuse of promoting
Some examples of British colonies are India, Australia, and Canada and many others. Most of these countries won their independence from Britain and now are self-ruled. The country that is going to be researched on how they gained their independence is South Africa, one of Britain’s biggest colonies. The Europeans that first found South Africa were the Portuguese navigator Bartholomeu Dias. Bartholomeu discovered
Image Ownership: Public Domain The Haitian Revolution has often been described as the largest and most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere. Slaves initiated the rebellion in 1791 and by 1803 they had succeeded in ending not just slavery but French control over the colony. The Haitian Revolution, however, was much more complex, consisting of several revolutions going on simultaneously. These revolutions were influenced by the French Revolution of 1789, which would come to represent a new concept of human rights, universal citizenship, and participation in government. In the 18th century, Saint Dominigue, as Haiti was then known, became France's wealthiest overseas colony, largely because of its production of sugar, coffee, indigo, and cotton generated by an enslaved labor force.
Many colonised countries such as India, Pakistan, Ireland, Kenya, Nigeria and so on started writing a type of literature reflecting and representing their own experiences while and after colonization. Frantz Fanon laid essential theoretical foundation for the future colonial theories in his famous book The Wretched of the Earth (1092). He argues that a new world can come into being only with a violent revolution by African farmers. In another instant, he used his personal experiences in his book Black Skin, White Mask (1952) to show relationship between colonized and colonizer in terms of psychology in observing emotional damage to both colonized and