Whether or not third wave feminism will remain a single movement or it will have different branches with their own ideologies and goals, it has not been well-defined as yet (Wood, 2010: 78). Feminist theory took for granted that there is some existing identity understood through the category of women, who initiate feminist interests and goals (Butler, 2010: 2). This particular wave of feminism places great emphasis on agency, and this has an impact on an individual’s
While the two groups eventually merged and provided some success, gender equality and women’s rights remain a controversial issue in American society. In 1963, Friedan published The Feminine Mystique which exposed women’s unsatisfied lives as mothers and wives. Women who shared these
One example Mohanty provides in which “women” is used as a category of analysis is in the research of Perdita Huston, where she describes women in the Third World countries have "needs and problems, but few if any have choices or the freedom to act” (30). Mohanty argues that the usage of “women” in this context is problematic because the statement assumes that there is a universal unity for women, and ignores the differences among various ethnic groups and their history. The historical backgrounds become much more complex for women from different countries and it leads to varying views. For the conclusion, she revisited the first few chapters after sixteen years they were published and addresses responses from others on her essays. She further on instills the ideas of how feminism should be intersectional for all groups and not just for a select few.
Anne McClintock wrote her essay “Gonad the Barbarian and the Venus Flytrap: Portraying the female and male orgasm” to examine pornography and how it has changed throughout history and its effects on how women perform as sexual beings. McClintock focuses on the various roles of pornography such as its emphasis on voyeurism, pleasure, and the male ego. She wants her readers to know that women are still not represented in pornography to satisfy their own desires, but they are there to cater to men and their subconscious. I will analyze how McClintock argues that due to the history of sexism towards women, the roles that men and women have in pornography are inherently different because of the societal belief that women are only seen as objects of sexual desire and are solely there to satisfy the male audience.
In a preambled note ‘To all Noble and Worthy Ladies’ Margaret Cavendish outlines the structure of The Blazing World by declaring “The First Part is Romancical; the Second, Philosophical; and the Third is meerly Fancy’. Through the agency of misdirection, Cavendish disregards two important ideologies which epitomise any reading of the Blazing World. These two unspoken dominant discourses are; the concept of seeking a utopia through feminism and a utopia through the ambition of personal conquest. Throughout The Blazing World, Cavendish responds to the fundamental social problems within patriarchal society and provides a respondence to these specific dilemmas through the introduction of feminism. Cavendish also depicts her ambition of personal conquest through conveying her religious, scientific and philosophical methods throughout The Blazing World.
Angela Davis in her book, Are Prisons Obsolete?, argues for the overall abolishment of prisons. Amongst the significant claims that support Davis’ argument for abolition, the inadequacy of prison reforms stands out as the most compelling. Reform movements truthfully only seek to slightly improve prison conditions, however, reform protocols are eventually placed unevenly between women and men. Additionally, while some feminist women considered the crusade to implement separate prisons for women and men as progressive, this reform movement proved faulty as female convicts increasingly became sexually assaulted. Following the theme of ineffectiveness, the reform movement that advocated for a female approach to punishment only succeeded in strengthening
Both texts ‘The Handmaids Tale’ and ‘The Bloody Chamber’ were written during the second wave of feminism which centralised the issue of ownership over women’s sexuality and reproductive rights and as a result, the oral contraceptive was created. As powerfully stated by Ariel Levy, ‘If we are really going to be sexually liberated, we need to make room for a range of options as wide as the variety of human desire.’ Margaret Atwood and Angela Carter both celebrate female sexuality as empowering to challenge the constraints of social pressure on attitudes of women. Both writers aim to expose the impact of patriarchy as it represses female sexual desire and aim to control it thus challenge contemporary perspectives of women by revealing the oppression
Opponents of the ERA focused on traditional gender roles, such as how men do the fighting in wartime. They pointed out that the amendment would eliminate the men-only draft requirement and guarantee the possibility that women would be subject to conscription and be required to have military combat roles in future wars if it were passed. They appealed to married women by stressing that the amendment would repeal protective laws such as alimony and eliminate the tendency for mothers to obtain custody over their children in divorce cases. It was suggested that single-sex bathrooms would be eliminated if the amendment were passed as well. Traditional women started to oppose the ERA.
She goes on to use Abercrombie & Fitch as an example of an outside force causing girls to be sexual because they put out a shirt that says “who needs brains when you have these” on the chest. She goes on to make the point that a group of teen girls joined together to boycott these shirts, but she does not acknowledge that this boycott was led by Girls as Grantmakers, a feminist group. She wanted to work around the facts to prove that girls do not want to sexual and are willing to prove this by boycotting an institution. Laura Sessions Stepp uses examples that support “the emotional/ physical movement” by saying sex causes women to suffer from diseases and mental illness. She believes hookups cause women to become distant and no longer want relationships.
At most it suggests distal inﬂuence by males, with the proximal inﬂuences on speciﬁc women’s and girls’ sexuality being female. General Discussion The cultural suppression of female sexuality is of considerable interest both in its own right and as an important instance of cultural inﬂuence over sexual behavior. On the basis of previous writings, we identiﬁed two major theories regarding the source of this suppression. One of them depicted men as conspiring to suppress female sexuality, as a way of controlling women, ensuring peace and order in society, and reducing the risk of wifely inﬁdelity. The other theory depicted women as cooperating to restrict each other’s sexuality, mainly as a way of ensuring that the exchange of sex for other
‘The party’ restricts sexual behavior as it competes with complete loyalty to the ‘state’. This is evident when Winston and Julia make love, thinking of it as ‘a blow struck against the party’ Winston also realizes it is the ‘force that would tear the party to pieces’. The party recognized the power of sex as not just an act of reproduction and is evident through Winston’s encounter. Through eliminating the act, the party is able to maintain control over the population. The party is then able to channel the population’s sexual frustrations and substitutes it with patriotism towards the party.
Eleanor Rathbone led the National Union of Societies for Equal Citizenship (NUSEC) which seceded the NUWSS at the end of the war. Rathbone followed a ‘new’ feminism which “embodied [the] belief that the equality of women with men had been achieved” (Kent, 1988, p. 240). New feminism is also viewed as a step backwards by many especially in foresight. These new feminists stopped challenging the ideological issues caused by their gender, and their new ideology became too similar to that of antifeminists. Their new demands were based on what women at home might need instead of equal voting rights.
In this article, Bell Hooks starts off by stating many different definitions of Feminism from the past to the present. Hook’s says the lack of a definition holds the feminist movement back. This leads to Hooks explaining what Feminism is to her and what it should be to women. Hooks believes that feminism is a movement that should be aimed at ending sexist oppression (p.26). Her ideology says that this movement should not want to just focus on creating a feminist society, but to promote the self-development of women themselves (p.26).