It was then ashed with a muffle furnace at 500ºC and weighed (W3) . The percentage of ash was calculated by using the following formula: Ash (%)= W3-W1 ̸ W2-W1 X 100 Ash was treated with conc.Hcl and was made upto 50ml with distilled water. An aliquot of ash solution was reacted with ammonium oxalate solution for calcium precipitation. After centrifugation and decanting supernatent, the precipitate is redissolved in 4N sulphuric acid. Calcium solution is titrated against 0.01N Potassium permanganate to obtain pink colour as end point.
A flame test and a halide ion test were performed. To start with the flame test, weigh 1 gram of Unknown substance in an analytical balance using a scoopula and mixed it in with 20 mL of water into a 150 mL. Repeat the same step with NaC2H3O2. Repeat the same step for the flame test and record down data. Lastly is the halide ion test.
This has to be prepared fresh. Procedure : (a) Preparation of calibration curve :(i) Pippet portions of standard NiSO4 solution into 100 ml volumetric flask. Use a series from 50 to 250 µg Ni. (ii) Add 25 ml 1.0 N HCl in 5 ml bromine water. (iii) Cool with cold running tap water and add 10 ml concentrated Ammonium hydroxide.
The sum of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and organically bonded nitrogen in the wastewater is measured by persulfate digestion method using Hach method. Oil & grease (O&G). In the study, the procedure is equivalent to USEPA Method 1664, adapted from APHA 5520B. Hexane was used to extract material (ideally just oil and grease) from the sample. The hexane was evaporated and the entire amount of residue left behind is defined as oil and grease.
Then, the funnel was fixed on a cylinder and 100 ml water was added to soil in the funnel slowly. Watch glass dish was used to cover the upper surface of the funnel to avoid losing any water by evaporation. The start time of each sample was recorded to calculate the amount of collect water in the cylinder after one hour. The retained water in the soil was calculated simply (100 – the collected water in the cylinder) with considering the amount of water in the cotton or ply tissue. Water content was estimated in additional samples (100 gm) by weighting the soil samples (W1) and afterwards drying them at 105 °C (W2).
Metal chelating activity Briefly, 2 mM FeCl2 was added to different concentrations of test sample and reaction was initiated by the addition of 5 mM ferrozine. The mixture was vigorously shaken and left to stand at room temperature for 10 min. Absorbance was measured at 562 nm after 10 min.8 % Inhibition = [(AB - AA)/AB] x 100, where AB, absorption of blank sample, AA, absorption of test sample. 2.6. Antibacterial
A total of 30 g of seaweed Sargassum sp. washed and dried. The dried seaweed soaked in a solution of 0.4% formalin for 6 hours and 1% HCl solution for 1 hour and then washed with distilled water to pH neutral. Furthermore, seaweed cut added a solution of Na2CO32% with a ratio of 1:30 (w/v). Subsequently extracted by Microwave at power level 70 for 16 minutes and then filtered.
Heat the Agarose gel in a 65 °C water-bath to melt the agarose. After it melted, maintain its temperature at 55 °C until it is ready for use. 2. Transfer the spheroids from the 96-well plate to a 15 mL centrifugal tube using a 1000 μL pipette 3. centrifuge the tube for 5 min at 1000 rpm to form a pellet. 4.
Added 2 ml of the dissolved sodium hydroxide into the heated oil, immediate the mixture turns cloudy. Set aside to stir for 30 minutes on high. Transfer contents of beaker into a 250 mL separator funnel. Leave the mix to break up for overnight. Transfer the glycerol (bottom layer) into a beaker from
 Appropriate concentrations of SBP hydrolysate were mixed 1: 4 (v/v) with 200 M DPPH solution in anhydrous methanol for 30 min in the dark. The absorbance of the samples was recorded spectrophotometrically on a microplate reader (Multiskan Go, Thermo Fisher Scientific) at 517 nm. A control group containing DPPH solution without sample was also prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. ABTS radical scavenging