INTRODUCTION Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crop, belongs to an economically important family Solanaceae and is grown worldwide. In some countries like Bangladesh, it secured second position as a staple food crop after rice (Parveen et al., 2014). Due to its high nutritious value, the potato crop has gained much importance. It is considered as the third most important crop of the world after wheat and rice and is consumed by more than one billion people worldwide (Venkatasalam et al., 2013). In Pakistan it was grown on 172 thousand hectares during the year 2012 with the production of 3767.2 thousand tons which was 11.0 % more than last year (Economic survey of Pakistan, 2013).
Basing on varieties with characteristics such us time of maturity, starch content, yield potential, storage life, blight resistance, leaf roll resistance, virus Y resistance, bacterial wilt resistance, and meloidogyne resistance. Kerr's Pink is ranked the highest, followed by Maritta, Anett, Kenya Baraka, Pimpernel, Feldeslohn, Patrone, , Robijn, Roslin Chiana, Kenya Akiba, Mirka, Urgenta, Roslin Eburu, Roslin Sasamua, and Desiree according to(Todd, 1976). The choice of potato varieties also depend on characteristics that the farmer wants which are salient to the decision-making process and characteristics of the varieties. The farmer may include socio-economic status, size of household and level of education, knowledge of effective husbandry, access to channels of communication about potato production, production objectives either home consumption or market sales, lack of need for purchase inputs , use of minimal growing space , high yielding ,good cooking qualities , good taste ,storability, marketability, maturation period suitable to farmer's objectives most prefer a short
In the last 50 years, agriculture is considered to be the main reason for Pakistan's economic development. More than 60% of Pakistan's population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. The importance of agriculture in economic development 1- The increase in per capita income Per capita income is the annual income of a country. Because many unemployed people find work
Tomato health management can b particularly changing due to resistant being overcome by new pathogen races and to introduction of new pathogens by global agriculture markets. The most important gene family involved in the recognition of pathogen examine in tomato has been the resistance genes (R-genes). Avirulent (Avr) pathogen recognition is done by R-genes and initiation of defence mechanism in the form of hypersensitive response (HR). Plant immune system can also respond to an infection through sensitization of their basal immune system that shares elements with the R-gene mediated response (Postel and Kemmerling 2009). PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV.TOMATO STRAINS AvrPto AND AvrPtoB: In tomato, the resistance against Pst which causes the bacterial speck disease of tomato, occurs upon the recognition of type III effectors (AvrPto or AvrPtoB) by the R protein Pto that is serine / threonine protein kinase (Pedley and Martin 2003).
It causes sudden droop and death of affected plants, usually during the months which are warmer. It is basically a fungus of the species Phymatotrichopsis omnivora which spreads in the soil and it attacks the roots of susceptible plants [14,15]. First symptoms of disease is often loss of green coloration of the leaves. This is then followed by browning and drooping of the leaves. After two weeks of the first symptoms the plant dies
It also play an important role in enhancement of factor such as soil nutrient, plant pathogen crop and much more. Among the five major crops of Pakistan that are cotton, rice, sugarcane, maize and wheat the modern biotechnology focused on rice and cotton. Pakistan is the world fourth largest producer of cotton which is known as “white gold” life of million of farmer depend on this crop. It accounts for 8.2% of the value added in agriculture and about 3.2% to GDP. By the introduction of bt rice it give benefit to the growers that resist the insecticide use on rice and better control on disease like stem borers and blight.
Insect’s pests and diseases have the potential to cause 52, 58, 59, 74, 83 and 84 percent loss in wheat, soybean, maize, potato, rice and cotton respectively (Sharma et al. 2001). In the 5 mandate crops of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), the biotic and abiotic stress factors have been estimated to cause a loss of
IQRA UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CENTER (IURC) IQRA UNIVERSITY-IU RESEARCH PROPOSAL Thesis-1 Research Title: IMPROVING DATES SUPPLY CHAIN IN PAKISAN Introduction (literature based): The date palm is considered as the most important crash crop of Pakistan. Delicious dates are one of the most essential fruit with nutrients, vitamins and minerals, required by human body for normal growth. Thus for these qualities, dates are being used to breakfast in the Holy month of Ramadan. Pakistan is the fourth largest producer of dates in the world. The annual production of dates in Pakistan is 535,000 tones.