Many diseases, pests and insect infect the cultivated sunflower plants and affect the yield of the plant. The major problem is plant diseases that how we overcome the disease and increase the ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬sunflower yield. More than 30 diseases have been identified worldwide which is due to viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms. Breeding for disease resistance is always considering most important task in sunflower plant breeding for
Introduction: Irish potatoes are a starchy tuber crop from the perennial solamun tubersum of the solsnaceae family. They are mainly grown in the cool highland areas as a food crop as well as a vegetable. Potatoes are the world 's most widely grown tuber crop and the fourth largest crop in terms of fresh produce (after rice, wheat, and maize). Climatic Requirement: Irish potatoes grow well in areas that receive regular rainfall and have a cool climate with temperatures ranging 100C to 230C. Irish potatoes grow best in mild temperature with abundant rainfall 900-1400mm per annum.
Another study showed that the technology of GMOs didn’t help in the reduction of the amount of pesticides used. As stated by Ho and Sirinathsinghji, “USDA data showed that GM crops increase pesticide use by 50 million pounds from 1996 to 2003 in the United States” (2008, p.4). Another negative effect of GMOs on our environment is that it makes sever damage to the wild life. As mentioned by Ando and
Cormac O’ Grada’s Black ’47 and Beyond: The Great Irish Famine in History, Economy and Memory describes the economy during the Great Famine. He writes that government money and private charity led to “inattention to cultivation” which destroyed the crops in 1846 (O’Grada, p.49). But it was not just government intervention that led to the severity of the Great Famine. The start of a poor wheat harvest early into the Famine was also a leading factor. Due to this, domestic food supply decreased, causing an increase in prices and trade deficit.
Such low productivity leads to increasing poverty and food insecurity of rural poor farm households in the country. During the past years, the government and NGOs have undertaken various attempts to enhance agricultural productivity particularly that of cereal crops so as to achieve food security and to reduce poverty in the country. The available studies on the productivity of cereal crops in general and maize production in particular in Ethiopia found low productivity in comparison with the international standards (Alemayehu, 2009), although, the
THE ACCEPTABILITY OF POTATO (Sulanum Tuberosum) STARCH IN MAKING BIOPLASTIC by De Vera, Sharina Kriz B. Grade 8- STE (A) Mahogany CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The researcher uses potato as the main component of making bioplastic. Potato (Sulanum tuberosum) is a starchy root vegetable of Central American Origin. It is one of the most widely grown root- crops all over the world and also an example of tuber. It belongs to perennial subspecies of Sulanum tuberosum, in the Solanaceae family. Potato plant bears many tubers underground and grows about 12 to 8 inches in height.
Among the types of glycoalkaloids, the most common ones are α-solanine (C45H73NO15) and α-chaconine (C45H73NO14) (Espinoza et al., 2014). Both are glycosylated (trisaccharide) derivatives of aglycone solanidine, a steroid alkaloid. The highest concentrations of glycoalkaloids are found in the green parts of potatoes and in the sprouts, whereas within tubers, peel and the layer below it have the highest glycoalkaloid concentration. The total glycoalkaloids levels depends on various factors, such as potato cultivar, potato maturity at harvest time, tuber size, soil and weather conditions during growing season, dosage of mineral fertilizer, mechanical damage, storage conditions and access to light (Tajner-Czopek et. al., 2008; Knuthsen et.
Most of the low productivity in agriculture is as a result of insect pests, diseases and weeds (Oerke 2006). Out of the total available production of 568.7 billion worldwide, they caused an estimated loss of US $243.4 billion in 8 major fixed crops (42%). Amongst these insects cause an estimated loss of 90.4 billion, diseases 76.8 billion and weeds 64.0 billion (Sharma et al. 2002a). Insect’s pests and diseases have the potential to cause 52, 58, 59, 74, 83 and 84 percent loss in wheat, soybean, maize, potato, rice and cotton respectively (Sharma et al.
The conventional potato market demand is quite as compared to the organic potato. Modern agriculture largely depends on the use of nutrients and chemicals from inorganic sources. But continuous use of inorganic fertilizes in Crop cultivation is causing health hazards, and creating problems to the environment including the pollution of air, water, soil, etc. Indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizer is badly affecting texture and structure of soil, decreasing soil organic matter and hampering soil microbial activity due to
Besides, vegetables are home for diverse varieties of health benefiting phytochemicals having antioxidant, antifungal, anti-viral, antibacterial and anticarcinogenic properties (Gruda, 2005; Steinmetz, 1996). India ranks second in vegetable production in the world, producing 162.2 million tonnes contributing 14% of total world production of vegetables (FAO website – February, 2014 and Indian Horticulture Database, 2013). In India vegetables occupied an area of 8.5 million hectares during 2010-11 which increased to 9.2 million hectares with a total production of 162.2 million metric tons during 2012-2013. The trends are shown in Fig.1. Figure: 1.