12. The TLC data obtained is provided in a table below. The TLC data was conducted solely in a 9:1 hexane/ethyl acetate solvent solution as opposed to the 1:1 and pure hexane solution as well. This was due to the lack of time, but as explained in number 7, a very polar solvent (1:1 solution) or non-polar solvent (pure hexane) is not ideal when obtaining
The activities of most enzymes follow a bell-shaped curve, increasing from zero in the strong acid region up to a maximum value which is identified at the optimum pH. Enzymes display their highest activity at their respective optimum conditions as seen in figure 2, the optimum pH is 6.5 since it has the highest absorption peak on the curve, and then decreasing to pH 8.5 which is the the strong alkaline region (Figure 2). The state of protonation is responsible for this behaviour, the protonation of one functional group promotes the catalytic activity, while protonation of another essential group breaks it down. In this case two conventional titration curves, an increasing and a decreasing one, form the bell-shaped curve as seen in figure 2. A pH balance of 0-6 is acid, a pH balance of 7 is neutral, and a pH balance above 7.5-14 is alkaline.
With the passage of time it reached at normal concentration at 2 hours 7.50 ± 0.13 ng/ml and then declined and at last became 26.1 ± 0.15 ng/ml at eight hours. But the Tamoxifen minimum effective concentration was maintained at 6 hours where it reaches at maximum concentration 32.04 ± 0.44 ng/ml. The minimum effective concentration of the Tamoxifen in plasma was persistent during the eight hours (0.05-8.0 hours) that will assure its pharmacotherapeutic action. Cmax is defined as the maximum concentration of drug achieved in the plasma. The peak plasma concentration is the factor which depends on both the rate of drug absorption and extent of drug absorption in the plasma.
 investigated gas-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl formate over silica supported copper catalyst. CO, methyl formate and methanol was separated in a Porapack N column. In the hydrolysis of methyl formate, H2 was used as a carrier. Hydrolysis of methyl formate at the temperature range of 429-457 K and at partial inlet pressure in the range of 3,5-14,5kPa, the conversion never exceeded 10%. The selectivity for methanol was always above 95%.
From the bromination of 0.05g aniline, 0.156g of the product was collected. The percent yield was calculated to be 88.1%. Some amount of the product was lost when transferring the product from the Buchner funnel to the balance to measure its mass. To ensure the formation of the desired product, melting point of the product was measured to be 119.8-121.90c, which is in the range of the normal melting point of 2,4,6-tribromoanilne, 120-1220c. Thus, the product was indeed
Fewer action potentials recorded at R2 when lidocaine is applied between R1 and R2 because it blocked membrane potential and lidocaine’s effect is reversible. A dentist should inject the lidocaine to block pain perception in the nerve so it can prevent pain on the area. TXX is not used because it is irreversibly blocked it. Actity 5 Inactivation is voltage-gated sodium channel refuse sodium to pass through. The absolute refractory period is an action potential can’t be triggered in refractory period, even a greater stimulus is applied.
Carbonic acid is a weak acid and so split into bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions. Bicarbonate ions also further split up into carbonate ions and hydrogen ions. • The acidity of the water is dependent on hydrogen ions, so as the number of hydrogen ions increases the Ph decreases making the water more acidic. • Evidence shows that the oceans ph has dropped by 0.1 ph units since pre industrial times. • It which may not sound like much but this is actually a 30% increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions.
In conclusion, when the concentration of grape juice increased, the average percentage change in the mass of the potato cylinders decreased. The increased concentration of grape juice means that there are more glucose molecules and, hence, the solution had a lower water concentration. There were more water molecules in the potatoes, thus diffusing into the water, against the concentration gradient in order to reach equilibrium. The water being lost decreased the mass of the potato cylinders. For example, in my raw data, concentration of grape juice solution of 40%, the initial weight of the potato was 6.00g however, after 15mins the weight of the potato decreased to 5.63g henceforth, the potato lost 0.37g.
For instant, when comparing two unicellular organisms, such as yeast and bacteria, S. cerevisiae shown to have a much slower proliferation rate (100 minutes per generation) as compared to E. coli, which proliferation rate is 15 - 20 min per generation (Herskowitz, 1988). In addition, the proliferation rate and doubling time would increase proportionally as the size of an organism increases. Nevertheless, there are many other factors that would influence the proliferation rate of a cell, including the chemical composition of a media, environment, water sources and water availability, carbon sources, nutrient sufficiency, pH and et
The action of the pilocaripne would be of about 0.5% to 4% depending on the strength of the pilocarpine used. The time it took to reach the maximum concentration, which was 3.7mg/ml, was of about 0.5 to 1 hour. Sustained release of pilocarine was observed due to the ocular system, of about 20 to 40 mcg/hour, only reaching the maximum effect of 1.5 to 2 hours after the application of the
RDI values suggest that around 1000mg of calcium should be consumed per day. This diet provides an average of 371.53mg per day, less than 50% of the recommended amount [refer to Graph 1], meaning the intake of calcium is significantly lacking. Insufficient intake of calcium could lead to the reabsorption of skeletal calcium, leading to osteoporosis in the long term (MelinePlus, 2015). Sodium is required in the diet to assist in the contraction and relaxation of muscle, and work with potassium to control fluids entering and leaving cells. RDI values suggest that 460-920mg should be consumed per day.
The temperatures at the other four depths measured are fairly similar to each other, being read at 21.7-22.1 degrees Celsius. When looking at Graph 2 (Dissolved Oxygen vs. Depth), it shows that the shallowest area sampled, 0.5 meters has the lowest percentage at 77.4%. After that, the percentages go to 79.8, 80.3, 80.6 and 79.7
Unknown #10 produced no identifiable macroscopic characteristics as a broth, so the first step was to Gram stain a loopful to determine the microscopic characteristics. Gram staining not only helped identify Unknown #10’s microscopic morphology but it also helped ensure the specimen was a pure culture—no other bacteria were visible when Unknown #10 was Gram stained and observed under the microscope. Unknown #10’s key microscopic morphology was that it was a very small, Gram negative bacillus. Though bacilli can possibly form endospores, no empty white centers were visible which suggested that Unknown #10 was not an endospore forming bacteria. No quick endospore stain was performed to validate this assumption since only one assigned organism was endospore forming and unlike Unknown #10, that organism was Gram positive.
The purpose of this lab was to measure the amount of CO2 gas given off by germinated peas under certain conditions of light. We conjectured that the more amount of light the peas are exposed to, the higher the respiration rate they will have. Our data supported this because it showed that the germinated peas that were exposed to light 24 hours before the experiment had a steeper slope (as seen in table 1), therefore having a greater respiration rate. The peas that were not exposed to any light 24 hours before the experiment had a reduced rate because of its lack of exposure to light. Both pea’s respiration rates showed that the more light the peas were exposed to, the greater respiration rate they would have (Figure 1).
In the same manor as the temperature decreases it slows down the enzymes not allowing them to break down the solution in a timely matter. The amount of pH in the solution didn’t match the hypothesis for this experiment. The fastest absorption rate of the enzymes was at the pH level 7 which was predicted to be the slowest rate. It absorbed the most at the pH level because it was at a neutral, not being to acidic which would slow down the enzyme break down. From this experiment it shows that the highest concentration of enzymes is what gives the fastest rate of enzyme absorption.