In Sao Paulo, Caldeira observes how the withdrawal by the upper class from public space enclaves leads to the emergence of a discourse associating criminality and poverty, and generates stereotypical images of the poor as the inherently dangerous “other” (Rodgers, 2004). However, some argues that the urban poor represent a force for revolutionary change, while others suggest that they are basically conservative in their socio-political views, and focus on survival. This paper seek to critically assess and contrast these two views. Moreover this will be done through assessment of different theoretical views. However this essay briefly seek to define the concept of urban poor as mainstay of these two views.
The main issue which is creating problem to fight against poverty is that people migrating from rural areas to urban areas is making the urban cities quite congested and affecting the lifestyle of the urban people. Findings show that 75 percent of the developing world's poor still live in rural areas it’s a large amount of percentage people living in rural areas because of their agriculture work as it’s a main source of income for the rural areas. It is believed that the main cause of rise in urban poor is the cost of living as the author has stated that overall people living in rural areas have $1cost of living per day but if we compare this with living cost in urban it’s like nothing so this increase poverty in the urban area. The urban poor face the housing problems as governments and local government try to make housing societies for the low income group but it fails to get them a fixed asset as one big problem of corruption arises in the developing countries and that land is basically allotted to landlords or some projects, thus doing hand with the low income groups and make difficulties for the poor ones. With a new rising trend towards less planning for social housing in big cities, administrators and city developers know very well
Since India’s independence, the subject of poverty in India has remained a major concern. According to the common definition of poverty, when a person can no longer meet the required levels to maintain specified standard of living, they are considered poor .This becomes apparent after just a short amount of time spent in the country. For example, states such as Goa, Delhi and Punjab have relatively low poverty ratios whereas 38% of the population of Bihar and Orissa live below the poverty line, the figures are even worse for Calcutta and Maharashtra pushing nearly 50%.The poverty and situations that people are forced to live in coupled with the burning desire to survive have resulted in people doing some unimaginable things to stay alive .Some sources suggest that now almost 60% of the world poor now call India home. It is also the country with the highest rate of Malnutrition among children under the age of 36 months: a massive
Pollution and poverty go hand in hand in a vicious cycle, that is far from being broken. The poor are repeatedly blamed for America 's pollution and land degradation. Poverty is the true cause of land degradation. Land degradation is any change in the condition of the land which reduces its productive potential (Ema.com) The poor are vulnerable to have an impact on health due to land degradation. The poor rely on environmental resources.
C Potgieter, 1998). Rural poverty is characterised by overcrowded living conditions with poor infrastructure. People in rural areas are dependent on earnings from parents because usually the grandparents take care of the grandchildren. These people suffer nutritional disorders, illiteracy is high and children may go without education. The urban poor live in shacks that provide insufficient shelter.
Such as ones sex, age, ethnic background, religion, environment, and which country you come from determines the conditions. For example, a poor Buddhist monk in Bangkok, Thailand would in most cases live under other conditions than a woman in Australia. Poverty of street children in Rio 's slums looks different to poverty that has to do with a woman in
Childhood poverty is a serious issue across the world. For children, poverty is defined as the deprivation of necessary aspects of life such as, nutrition, health, water, education, or shelter. According to Unicef, 47 percent of those living in extreme poverty are 18 years old or younger which means that nearly 385 million children are living in poverty worldwide (based on data from 89 countries).This is a staggering result as this means that children account for almost half of the world’s extreme poor. According to the World Bank Group and Unicef, the youngest children are the worst off. More than one-fifth of children under the age of five in the developing countries face extreme poverty compared to 15% of 15-17 year old that live in poverty.It is appalling that children, as young as five years old are in danger.
Majority of the world’s poor live in rural areas of developing countries and depend mainly on agriculture and related activities for their livelihood. About Seventy-five percent of the world’s people who live on one US dollar or less per day work and live in rural areas. They do not earn enough even to cover their food needs. Most importantly they are confronted with limited economic opportunities and underdeveloped markets beside a plethora of other socio-economic problems. Resource pressure and environmental degradation create additional challenges to rural communities and their livelihoods, exacerbating conflict prone situations and accelerating rural urban migration flows (World Bank, 2008).
Most of the developing countries suffer from poverty and the less of access to their basic needs. Poverty is a condition when the people’s basic needs as food, clothing, education, shelter and health care aren’t met. Most of the developing countries are affected by this phenomenon, over three billion of people live on less than 2.50 dollars
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Urban poor communities. According to the World Bank (2011) in the section of urban poverty and slum upgrading, communities that are from urban poor are not only those who are deprived from unhealthy environment or who have restricted approach towards health and educational resources, etc. It is actually a dynamic condition whereby people from areas that are susceptible to risk of those stated earlier are also considered as urban poor community. Sinniah, B., Hassan, A.K.R., Sabaridah, etc (2014) stated that to find small businessmen, fairly well educated people, students, government civil servants, self employed and others in urban slum areas are fairly common. This is because those people in urban slum areas