Caste identity is also associated with social advantage or disadvantage depending on the position occupied by a particular caste in the hierarchy (Joseph and Selvaraj). This topic describes the origin and development of the caste system in India; however, it creates impact into current Hinduism with some advantages and disadvantages. The Caste system had originated in India approximately thousands of years ago. The beginning of the caste system in India is based on different theories. Theories like religious theories, biological theories and social-mythological theories.
The term, ‘Social Exclusion’, being of a recent origin has been attributed by Amartya Sen to the French policy maker Rene` Lenoir who used it in the mid seventies to describe a tenth of the French Population that comprised of “mentally and physically handicapped, suicidal people, aged invalids, abused children, substance abusers, delinquents, social parents, multi-problem households, marginal, asocial persons, and other social misfits”. Silver further broadened the roll by bringing under the ambit of socially excluded those who would be deprived of a livelihood, secure, permanent employment, earning, property, credit, or land, housing, minimal or prevailing consumption levels, education, skills, and cultural capital, welfare state, citizenship
The Caste Question Indrajit Borah Whether Rohith Vemula’s anti-Brahminical outburst is a resurrection of age-old caste movements or a convergence of Left and Ambedkarite politics; the pertinent question is, how Indian democracy could have further eradicated caste-based oppression since independence? The Indian Caste System was a closed system of social stratification with four hierarchically ranked castes called Varnas covering over 4000 specialized occupational sub-castes, called Jatis as per the Anthropological Survey of India. Hereditary specialization, sacred hierarchy and mutual repulsion were the three main characteristics of the system behind ritualistic practising of endogamy, occupational restriction and restriction of caste mobility.
Despite extensive social engineering India seems to be an unusually immobile society. This unusually low rate of social mobility, he argued, is the result of high rates of marital endogamy among social groups and within caste groups of the Hindu population in India. A study (Spears, 2016) found lower caste people in rural north India evaluate their lives to be worse than higher caste people, and this difference is not explained by poverty, suggesting that wealth cannot fully account for the average difference in life satisfaction across caste groups. Rather there appears to be differences in life satisfaction by caste, even at the same level of socio-economic
In India, an individual 's caste can not be changed. Being in a higher caste may grant an individual more opportunity to be prosperous, however individuals from lower castes are “much poorer than [individuals from the higher castes],” with “no opportunity [to] advance (Caste)” This large gap is shown as Shibojyoti Sanyal, a Brahmin has a high-paying job with Sales and Marketing, while a Dalit is treated, “like dirt,” they are “told to wash the utensils...sit there” indicating that they have a low paying job (Caste, Cast Aside: Bigotry Bans Target Tradition). Not only do “caste barriers play in holding back India’s economic progress,” but the people from lower castes are faced with discriminatory actions towards them. Vishal and Shraddha, a married couple, “have been forced to cut ties with their families who opposed the match because they belong to different castes,” as “Inter-caste marriages are largely frowned upon in India (Caste or Class).” Another example of this is that “upper caste children do not want to eat food made by [a Dalit],” and that “the parents consider the food polluted by [her] touch. (Caste Aside: Bigotry Bans Target Tradition)” Some parents are even “[withdrawing] their children from [the school]”, and “put [the children] in a private [school]” on the basis that “[they] don 't want their children do eat food made by lower caste people.
Social exclusion is a much broader concept than poverty but it does encompass it. It focuses on what factors prevents an individual from having the same opportunity given to the majority of the community. In India even though the caste system was abolished in the 1950’s it is yet hard to get rid of the age old system that segregates the society groups such as the Adivasi’s and davits aka untouchables or even out caste are considered to be the lowest in the caste system and are excluded in many spheres of life. This I believe in some way creates an artificial poverty line which divides people based on caste, gender and religion. Birth would decide their occupation and their economic fate.
Introduction Caste system in India is system of social stratification. The Indian Caste System is historically one of the primary criteria where individuals in India are socially separated through class, religion, region, tribe, gender, and dialect. Despite this fact also different types of differentiation exist in every single human societies, it turns into an issue when one or a greater amount of dimensions cover one another and turn into the sole premise of systematic positioning and unequal access to esteemed assets like riches, wage, influence and esteem. The Indian Caste System is viewed as a closed system of stratification, which implies that a man 's social status is committed to which caste they were naturally born to. There are limits on cooperation and conduct with individuals from another social status.
Though this has changed from the classification as Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vasihyas and Shudra, elements of caste do exist even in the present. Reservation system is one example. Most educational systems and even government jobs have a reservation system for SCs, STs and Other Backward Classes (OBC). In fact, only 0.7% scholarships
Scheduled Tribes refer to the indigenous tribal population of India. 8.2% of the population is the indigenous people or the ‘Adivasis’. The Indian Constitution has banned untouchability under Article 17. The Government recognizing the historical disadvantage and vulnerability of the Dalits has passed the Prevention of Atrocities against Scheduled Caste/Tribe Act, 1989 to enable the Dalits to enjoy human rights on par with other sections of Indian society and empower them in their struggle for their rights. The Act was enacted to protect the SCs and STs from wanton attacks by those claiming to be superior and to help the social inclusion of Dalits into Indian society, but crimes against Dalits continue to exist.