These small errors may be arised as a result of temperature. Because the accurate mesuring process took much time and during this time the temperature of water was decreasing. Among two methods the density bottle gives more accurate measurement of the volume, resulting in more accurate determination of density. One of disadvantages of hydrometer is that hydrometer has Operator dependent readings, therefore has limited accuracy. Morever, for measuring the density using hydrometer large sample volume is required.
I. Introduction This experiment uses calorimetry to measure the specific heat of a metal. Calorimetry is used to observe and measure heat flow between two substances. The heat flow is measured as it travels from a higher temperature to a lower one. Specific heat is an amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of anything one degree Celsius.
This transformation has been observed by shifting of diffraction angle of layered titanates from 2θ = 11.4° to higher diffraction angle (2θ =14.1°). Similar results were reported by Suzuki and Yoshikawa  and Morgado et al.  in the thermal stability study on titanate nanotube. The diffraction peak (at 2θ=27.5°) related to added CN was not observed in the PXRD pattern, because it is merged with the TiO2 (B) phase peak at 28.6°. Further the intensity of peak at 28.6° is increasing with increase in the amount of CN loading.
They tested how the temperature would affect the rate of reaction. This was observed by the amount of time it took for the solution to change colors. For many chemical reactions there is an optimum temperature at which the chemicals will react with each other. As was found in their experiment, the temperature affected the rate of reaction. (Deoudes, 2010).
This curve does not match exactly the figure 6 on the lab manual. It is steeper than the simple distillation but not as sharp as the fractional distillation. Some errors in the experiment that led to these results were the heat applied to the mixture was not constant. It had to be fluctuated as initially, the rate was too high but when the heat was set to low there was barely any distillate in the receiver. Throughout the experiment, there was a struggle to keep the heat stable which led to inaccurate data.
Free acid was also presented as a peak at 1693 cm-1 associated with C=O stretch and 1157 cm-1 correspond to the C-O stretch. These peaks were absence in its sodium salt spectrum. The thermogram of DFA measured by DTA is also displayed in Fig. 2, which shows the endotherm curve of melting at 173.8 °C, similar with the base-drug property (Barbato et al., 2003). Therefore,
2). All the reaction conditions including the concentration of the oxidant, amount of sodium hydroxide and temperature were studied. The reaction was utilized for developing two direct kinetic spectrophotometric determination of GT by monitoring the increase of the absorbance of manganate ion as a function of time at controlled temperature. These methods (A) and (B) are based on initial-slope (Method A) and fixed-time (Method B), and they were validated for linearity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The proposed methods were applied for the determination of GT in pharmaceutical preparations and the results were comparable with standard methods
5. X-RAY DIFFRACTION * XRD is a technique generally employed for elucidation of structure and arrangement of atoms. * In our analysis the structure of GO and PCBGO were analysed. * The interlayer distance upon functionalisation can be seen as a function of oxidation. * The d spacing for GO= 7.82 Å from diffraction peak at 11.4 degrees for the  plane.
Fig shows 3.13 powder diffarction pattern (it shows diffraction lines and holes for incident and transmitted beam) If a powdered specimen is used,instead of a single crystal,then there is no need to rotate the specimen,because there will always besome crystal at an orientation for which diffraction is legitimate.Here a monochromatic X ray beam is incident on a powdered or polycrystalline sample.This method is use ful for samples that are difficult to obtain in single crystal form. The powder method is used to determine the value of the lattice parameters accurately.Lattice parameters are the magnitudes of the unit vectors a,b and c which define the unit cell for the crystal.