They hypothesize that men`s motivation for sex and the motivation for domination and control are ‘functionally integrated in the sexual psychology of men as a result of evolution by selection’, to control a women`s sexuality to control paternity.” However, today, there could be different, more, or less types of rape than in the past. Three patterns of rape are described in the present day western culture: power rape, the expression of conquest and control, often to compensate for perceived inadequacy. Anger rape, the expression of hostility, and sadistic rape, expression of eroticized anger and power, often characterized by intentional maltreatment and enjoyment of victim suffering. How does evolutionary psychology account for the seemingly differently motivated acts? The power rape may be most closely related to rape used to increase copulation.
Not only does race determine how young people are treated in the criminal justice system, but masculinity also plays an important role in how they are able to desist as they pass through this system. Central characteristics of masculine identity are toughness, dominance, and the willingness to use violence. Masculinity does not always describe biological sex; it is a tool used by both sexes in an attempt to accomplish certain goals. Young women also use masculinity in an attempt to survive and resist criminalization. Next, the author’s main argument is that there are differing forms of masculinity that men use in an attempt to maintain their dignity and gain respect.
It is basically stated right off the bat in the section about victims and perpetrators of crime that men are more likely than women to commit crimes. The criminal justice system sees male violence as a normal way of life and approaches female offenders as if there is something wrong mentally. The ratio of women to men in prisons is incredibly imbalanced. Women are still guilty of committing crimes as are men but it seems they’re a bit more sly in that they use the gender contract or chivalry thesis to their advantage. On the flip side, it’s interesting to note that almost all crimes involving women are against them.
To understand the complex phenomenon of child abuse, we have to consult a range of theoretical orientations. The following two theories are worth discussing, with regard to child abuse. 1.5.1. Patriarchal Theory: Proponents of the patriarchal conception present what at first glance seems to be plausible evidence in support of their position. From early childhood, males are more outwardly aggressive than females, and as adults, they commit the preponderance of violent crimes.
The evolutionary approach fails to explain why people show aggression towards their loved ones. (domestic violence, HBV, child abuse.) Hormones and Genes are another approach viewed as providing evidence that aggression is innate. Theorists argue that an increase in testosterone during puberty is linked to an increase in aggression and is mainly linked to males. Research has found adolescent boys and adult men with high testosterone levels to be prone to delinquency, hard drug use and aggressive responses to provocation (Archer,1991;Dabbs &Morris, 1990; Olweus et al., 1988).
Empirical background After Robert Agnew introduced the General Strain theory in 1992, he received several support from researchers regarding of his theory including himself. Broidy and Agnew (1997) conducted a study on why the crime rate is higher among males and why also females engage in crime. Broidy and Agnew (1997) hypothesized that males are always subject to different types of strain that would result to serious crime and also males are always subject to financial strain and interpersonal conflict that would lead into violence. Broidy and Agnew (1997) found that females commit crime when they are restricted of conversation, physical and emotional expression, social life and others. Years later, Agnew (2001) examined the characteristics of strainful events and conditions that influence their relationship to crime and he found out that strains are most likely to result in crime when they are seen as “unjust, high in magnitude, associated with low social control, and create some pressure or incentive to engage in criminal coping.” Agnew et.al (2002) used data from the National Survey of Children to examine on which certain major personality traits condition to affect strain.
The under-representation of women is mainly prevalent in the American Culture, as men consciously or unconsciously view themselves as being more superior than women, therefore perceiving and representing women as sex objects(Heise), encouraging sexual aggression and violence against women. Violence towards women sexually have also been normalized through overexposure of sexual violence in the media, both in music and the social media, and is further
In today’s society, gender roles are now distributed more equally, and discrimination on the basis of gender has seen a marginal decrease. Burke 2012 states, “In this new age, men are often "house-husbands" while their wives go out to work. Many women who do things typically associated with men are as muscular as men, and indeed look like men. There are policewomen and female soldiers who are rougher than the men.” This shows that there are many male dominated activities that are now being pursued by females. These new developments and changes in gender roles have aided in the fight to have gender inequality and discrimination discontinued both in society and the workplace.
They clearly show that when compared to non-gang members, gang members end up with a greater probability of being victimized. With all of that in mind, these statistics directly tie back into the thesis showing the proportion of victimization between gang and non-gang members. The first paragraph shows that gang members commit crimes at a higher rate than non-gang members, which could be the reason communities become unsettled and eventually join gangs. The thought proses could have been to join the group committing the crime so you yourself don't have to be on the receiving end. Unfortunately, due to the nature of crimes they commit, they put themselves into situations where they run the risk of getting victimized just because they are the
In a society, there are people who the population considers deviant because they do not conform to the socially predetermined regulations of a society. Within the term deviance, there are different levels that each community deems more deviant than others are. Sexual assault, especially when involving minors is often considered one of the more severe versions of deviancy in a society. This article focuses on the NAMBLA, which stands for the North American Man-Boy Love Association. This organization promotes and advocates sexual behavior between grown male adults and adolescent males.