Policy decisions made by the president, the Congress, or the Supreme Court are most likely to be implemented by bureaucrats. The concept of bureaucracy as “ideal” in the government was advanced by Max Weber (Lazo). To Weber, a bureaucracy depends upon certain elements, including a hierarchical authority structure, task specialization, and extensive rules, which allow similar cases to be handled in similar ways. Bureaucracies are created to solve problems. People become bureaucrats because they are motivated
Louis Althusser and Michel Foucault produced extraordinary where they explored issues and models for the reproduction of power. Though both these philosophers do not actually agree on how power and state operates they do come up with incredible arguments that are valid within our current society. Michel Foucault believes that the law within any society operates mostly at the supernatural level, thus he believes power lies within individual, unlike Althusser who believes that the state and its ideology has total control of its citizen due to its major branches. Althusser developed the most essential points of his analysis in his famous essay “ideology and the State’s Ideological Apparatus”. Althusser states that “the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.
Moreover, when we talk about Foucault and power, we should mention the Power/Knowledge theory by Foucault which defines a correlation between and knowledge since knowledge is a form of power: Knowledge linked to power, not only assumes the authority of 'the truth' but has the power to make itself true. All knowledge, once applied in the real world, has effects, and in that sense at least, 'becomes true.' Knowledge, once used to regulate the conduct of others, entails
The endless categorisation, classification and subjectification through forms of domination based on how science objectifies the individual as the subject of language and the discourse of truth. S. 204 Subjectification relates to the way individuals subjectify themselves (Foucault, 1984). Foucault’s idea of subjectification relates to Bentham’s idea of the ‘Panopticon’. The model of the Panopticon is a tower placed in a central location within a prison in order for the guards to be able to observe each cell and its occupants at any given time (Foucault, 1977). It was designed in a way that the prisoners would be unable to know whether they were being observed at a particular time or not.
The activation of power is dependent on a person’s will, even in opposition to someone else’s.” (Sadan 35) This can be considered under the theoretical perception of personal / individual power because to my understanding, Weber is denoting that in spite of any obstruction, an individual will march towards his/her goal or aim with the self-power such as strength, confidence, and competence. Unlike Marx, he uses power more in relation to an individual rather than to the social formation. He believed in the idea of power by equating it with the ‘will
Civil Society has become one the most important features of the Morden State, whether operate independently or cooperated by the state. The primary role for the civil society is to limit the control of power by the state but more often now more civil society organisations have been co-opted into the state. This move has been criticized as it is view as that the state only do it to advance its own interest. Starting off with the idea of civil as state society, Marx does not go with the idea that it is the state that creates and sustains civil society. Below some of Marx criticism of this idea by different scholars in discussed.
In that case, the power elite is the power of individuals that are able to shape churches and schools; in order, for society to adapt. The power elite share a set of beliefs to help “coexist as well to maintain their consolidated power.” (Shawnson, 1989, 1) In other words the power elite are those who have the greater power and privilege and are able to make decisions that will have major effect in society. A quote that called my attention in The Power Elite book is “ Families and churches and schools adapt to modern life; governments and armies and corporations shape it; and, as they do so, they turn these lesser institutions into means for their ends.” (Mills, 1956, pg, 74) Meaning that everyone has a duty and everyone structures society into different occupations. Some have the power and privilege as others work for the people to keep society in a structure way. For example, an articled named Power Elite Now, mentions how Mills calls attention to a man, Winthrop W. Aldrich, the American ambassador to Great Britain, who was a director of 4 of the top 25 companies in America in 1950.
This new form of power is known as disciplinary power. Foucault’s idea of subjectification is closely linked to the Bentham’s panpticon; a new kind of prison building in which the prisoners would be unable to know whether they were being examining or not. This notion of authoritative gaze becomes prevalent in society through different institutions. Such kind of gaze also, in a way, becomes a means of looking at ourselves. So, we become a subject of our own gaze and continuously observe our bodies.
One cannot but help reconsidering structuralist notions of power, leaving for them the Foucauldian knowledge-is-power panopticon. The signs and signifying practices in Chanakya’s and Machiavelli’s world seem to conform into a unitary constructed reality, a reality that differs in all aspects but the nature of power. It is a fact that Chanakya’s work are far more comprehensive and wider in scope and ideas, however in reality it is the Machiavellian Tactics which influence the International Politics of
In parabolic dish furnace can get high temperature as it focus all the sunlight at a point and also primary and secondary receiver is used. In this furnace we can use to melt metal or also it can use to heat fluid at high temperature. 4.1Technical Challenges Have Been: • Development of solar materials and components • Commercial availability of a solar-izable engine 4.2 Advantage: High Efficiency • Demonstrated highest solar-to-electric conversion