With this, Widdowson (1983) strongly suggests that communicative competence be taught alongside with grammatical competence. To make the decision of teaching both linguistic and communicative competence clear, Widdowson distinguishes two aspects of performance: “usage” and “use”. He explains that “usage” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his knowledge of linguistic rules, whereas “use” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his ability to use his knowledge of linguistic rules for effective communication. He also distinguishes two aspects of meaning: “significance” and “value”. Significance is the meaning that sentences have in isolation from the particular situation in which the sentence is produced.
In this literary system translated literature and original literature stand together and they interact with one another. The contribution of this point of view to the Translation Studies is; it makes the translator to think much more inclusively about the text by looking at the text’s surroundings, by questioning “why these texts are translated? how they are translated? and how they interact each other?”. When it is looked at many text, now that it is known they should be comprehended together, there is a new field to study on about how this interaction between the texts woks.
What is divergence? Divergence in translation arises when the sentences in source language are realized in a different manner in the target language. It is necessary to understand how different linguistic and extra linguistic constraints play decisive roles in translation resulting in divergences and other issues. Proper identification and understanding these problems are important in both manual and machine translation. Moreover, resolution of such problems is a pre-requisite for generating good translation in target language.
Matthiessen (1995) discusses grammatical metaphor as a way of expanding the semantic potential of the system; also Thompson (1996) defines it as the expression of a meaning through a lexical- grammatical form which originally evolved to express a different kind of meaning. Halliday (1985: 1994) referred to grammatical metaphor (GM) as the non congruent ways of encoding language. Congruent forms are the natural ways that language encodes the meaning they express; the non –congruent ways of encoding language are viewed as metaphorical expression or grammatical metaphor. In this sense, grammatical metaphor is defined by Eggins (2004) as “the situations where meanings typically (congruently) realized by one type of language pattern get realized by other less typical or metaphorical (noncongruent) linguistic
All these concepts are looked upon as different ways of trying to make visible the textual category of translator. All these factors, explain why things have turned out the way they did. The answer is because the translator adhered to certain norms, ideologies and certain conceptions on interpretation of the source text. Then the question of why did he adhere to those particular norms comes into existence. In a nut shell, descriptive translational studies takes into its fold translator’s conception of the source text as it emerges from the target text.
Translators have to decide on the importance given to certain cultural aspects and to what extent it is necessary to translate them into the target language. When translating such a text, translators must be aware not only of the purely lexical nature of the text, but also of an equally basic issue of understanding the social, economic, political, and cultural contexts, which lend connotative aspects of multi-meanings to words. Carelessness treatment of these contexts may result in the breaking of peaceful coexistence among people of different
Mart proposed that ‘Comprehensibility’ and ‘Acceptability’ are the main purposes of teaching grammar. In this case, comprehensibility is emphasizing on the fluency of the language, which is the ability to deliver messages to another party. On the other hand, acceptability refers to the accuracy of using English Language is highlighting the societal view towards English users with different levels of proficiency. From this, it could be seen that Mart did not only put his focus of the academic usage of grammar but also discuss the importance of grammar based on societal aspects. Furthermore, Mark also quoted a criticism on the usage of traditional method, which is Present, Practice and Produce (PPP), failed to educate learners on the application of grammar in communication.
A Contrastive analysis between English and Arabic Before digging deeper into English and Arabic morphology, it is important to know more about morphology in general. According to Yule (2010, p.290), “morphology is defined as the study of word structure”, therefore, it is related to the formation of the word how it is compiled. Attayib (2016, 282) has argued that English and Arabic
The approach is a technique which consists of a broad understanding of the ST culture before language. In this study, the researcher gave a general overview of how a translator’s shortage in cultural conception approach would have an adverse outcome on the translated ST. As stated in chapter 3, Pike (1967) is of a view that one can find the best practical way to a society and culture when identified through the insider outlook. The outsider perspective, on the other hand, looks at behavior from the outside of a particular system. As far as the translation of Basrayatha is concerned, it is a successful translation regarding readability to the TT audience. However, the incompatible nature between the two languages and cultures was the reason of inequivalent cases on different levels.
Therefore he is able to choose the most propet methods for translation. Generally, Reiss identified three text types: content-focused text, form-focused text, and appeal-focused text, which have different dominant functions. The language in a content-focused text is rather informative, while in a form-focused text what need to be emphasized is the esthetic and expressive effects. Appealing-focused texts intend to persuade the readers. Moreover, Reiss also provides a critical lens for assessing translation quality, through examining the shifts of the linguistic semantic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic elements in the target text.