Pragmatism In Research Theory

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Pragmatism is a fundamental model or scheme that organizes our observations and makes sense of them (Allen Rubin & Babbie, E.R, (2011). In order to make the sensible study, the researcher will apply multi paradigms to meet the requirements of the research. This is because each paradigm separately has its own disadvantages. A combination of paradigms in the single study will help to reduce the weakness of the single perspective. Different paradigms in the single study provide an opportunity for the researcher to use variety of approaches and designs so that the study will compile both the authenticity and genuine information. Allen Rubin & Earl Babbie (2011) again state the importance of multi-paradigms in the research study. They argue:-…show more content…
It consists of research design, study area, study sample, sampling criteria, sampling techniques, data collection methods and analysis.

3.1 Research design
C.R Kothari (2009) states ‘research design is arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure’ In carrying out the research, the study will apply descriptive research design with qualitative and quantitative data The design has been selected because the study is primarily concerned with describing the situation of a particular event that is guidance and counseling implementation. Using the design, the researcher will be able to survey and describe accurately and precisely the whole process of guidance and counseling provision in Zanzibar government secondary schools.

3.2 Area of the Study
The study will be conducted in Zanzibar government secondary schools. There are reasons behind the selection of the study area. Many students in secondary schools are in adolescent age; that is dangerous period. This is the period in which Stanley Hall calls the period of ‘storm and stress’. Students in the period are faced by a number of social, academic, emotional problems that need to be addressed. Secondly, youths in any society are always the victims of
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(2006) a sample is a portion of people drawn from a large population. The study will employ secondary school counselors, secondary school students (from form one to form four), head teachers and guidance and counseling unit officials. The respondents have been selected as they are completely concerned with the programme in secondary schools. School counselors have been selected because they are the responsible of the programme. They have full information on how they conduct the programme, its success and challenges hindering it. Therefore, they will have vast information that will help the study. On the other hand, students are the targeted or focus group of the programme. They may provide information on the implementation of guidance and counseling in their schools. They may show strengths of the programme as well as the weaknesses. So, they have been included in the study as the major stakeholders of the programme that will help the study. Secondary school head –teachers have been selected as the responsible of all academic and non academic matters in their schools. They know each and everything happening in their schools including academic programmes conducted in their respective areas. So their selection will help the study to get a lot of information concerning to guidance and counseling programme in their schools. Guidance and counseling unit officials have been included in the study because they are the organizer

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