This literature review will be covering the topic on research paradigms. There are three major paradigms in the research paradigms which are the positivist paradigm research, interpretivist paradigm research and critical paradigm research. Each research paradigm has its own strengths and effectiveness due to their unique features which are specific to their particular approach as well as weaknesses. All researchers have their own beliefs and methods while conducting a research. Therefore, the ways of research studies conducted are vary.
It is important to analyse if any two paradigms can be compatible with one another. It is vital to define the word ‘compatible’.This word means when two views can coexist with one another. (English Dictionary and Thesaurus, n.d.). However, as mentioned above, two paradigms cannot coexist because in order for a new paradigm to be manifested, the other paradigm has to be seen as false. The new paradigm being constructed contains the problem that has been solved from the last one.
.Summary The article “Developing the Four-Stage Supervision Model for Counselor Trainees” was written by Ali Eryilmaz and Tansu Mutlu both from the Eskisehir Osmanganzi University was online for the first time in Februrary 25, 2017. Throughout my entire reading of the article, it is clear that the article focuses on the effectiveness of the Four Stage Supervision model for counselor trainees. The authors begin the article by stating that there is a great need for more effective supervised sessions, so that the counselors can gain the necessary skills to make adequate therapeutic progress through the counseling sessions. The research study addresses that a counselor should have the counseling skills as counseling is of extreme importance. As a student from the Introduction to Counseling and Guidance class, I must say I find Mr. Eryilmaz and Mr. Tansu’s views compelling, intelligent, and perhaps most importantly well worth heeding.
She eventually becomes a school counselor due to her strong passion in teaching. She can help the children and youth as a counselor, at the same time work like a teacher by conducting educational talks on issues such as stress management, negative peers influence, and
Besides this, the quantitative approach was used during this research. This study was based on the true reality and objectivity. Apart from the researcher’s perceptions, it involved the reality which exists within the nature. It was a cross sectional study with a quantitative method. 5.2 Sampling Plan According to this research design, there was a need to design a sampling plan first.
Chapter three discusses the research design and methodology used for the current study. The chapter begins with a discussion of the rational for choosing a qualitative design. Qualitative methodologies that were considered for the current study are discussed next followed by the rational for selecting a focused ethnography. Ethical considerations will then be discussed and the researcher describes how principles of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence, justice and respect were adhered to. The chapter continues with a discussion about sampling, recruitment and data collection.
Before undertaking any research, Boyle and Schmierbach (2015) suggested that a paradigm needs to be developed to ensure that the philosophical underpinnings used by the researcher are determined. When determining the paradigm, the researcher has to decide on whether to use a positivism approach or to use an anti-positivism approach. When a researcher adopts a positivism approach, the social aspect of research is assumed to have no significance on the results of the study. As such, most such studies adopt a quantitative review where the data collected does not really highlight the relationship with society. An alternative is an anti-positivism approach where the researcher recognizes the impact that social conditions and perceptions may have on the subject of research.
The experiment as the research design emphasises on the studies that use hypothesis so that reliable and appropriate conclusions can be achieved. In addition to this, under this research design, the real life experiments are performed to make sure that factual information is gathered by the researcher. Moreover, the outcomes of the experiment are focused on performing the statistical test in order to justify the data with respect to study. Therefore, in this considered study, this research design is not used due to the fact that there is no focus on developing a hypothesis and conducting any sort of experiments (Scruggs & Mastropieri,
3.4 Research Model 3.5 Research Approach 3.5.1 RO1: To get an overview of Indian Digital Advertising Industry scenario Research Design: Exploratory Research: This research design is generally used to clarify thoughts and opinions about the research problem or to provide more insights on the research topic. Often the researcher is new to the problem either because the product or the brand is new or the researcher is studying it for the first time for his/her research. In such cases, the first few studies tend to be exploratory in research. (Nargundkar, 2002) The researcher used this research design because the exploratory research provides a clear understanding about the research objectives related to the research study and helps to crystallize the defined gap. It is used to identify the variables used in the case studied.
For example, quantitative research does not capture the context of the lived experience and qualitative research lacks an ability to generalize findings because if its small sample size. Combining the approaches offers a way to maximize benefits and minimize deficits of each approach. This approach is especially valuable in social, behavioral and health sciences due to their complex nature (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018; Sale, Lohfeld, & Brazil,