In the United States alone,“ The pregnancy-related mortality ratios were 17.8 and 15.9 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2011 and 2012”(CDC 1). In 2011-2012 pregnancy-related deaths were caused by, “non-cardiovascular diseases, infection/sepsis, hemorrhage, cardiomyopathy, thrombotic pulmonary embolism..”.(HHS 1). These aren’t even all of the possibilities of what might happen, but majority of them can be helped with the correct medical attention. During childbirth, it is important to not only make sure that the baby is okay, but also the mother. A hospital is an ideal place to be if something might occur and there is a chance something will happen during childbirth.
PRE-ECLAMPSIA Description Preeclampsia is a condition that occurs only during pregnancy. Some symptoms of preeclampsia may include high blood pressure and protein in the urine, occurring after week 20 of pregnancy. Preeclampsia is often precluded by gestational hypertension. While high blood pressure during pregnancy does not necessarily indicate preeclampsia, it may be a sign of another problem. Pre-eclampsia is one of the most common cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.
A vital part of the nursing profession is nursing research. Clinical questions for specific patient problems are identified so that healthcare providers can find clinically relevant information using Internet search engines and databases (Higgins & Green, 2009). The main principle of nursing research is to produce new knowledge. The primary function of evidence based practice is to make evaluations about patient care built around the most current and best evidence that was collected by a systematic problem solving method. This paper will discuss hypothyroidism in pregnant women, and the risk fact of miscarriage during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Regardless of the improvements that have been made there is still a risk of miscarriages as a result. This risk factors can be contributed to the invasiveness of the procedure as well as the time during the pregnancy at which it is performed. The later the genetic testing is performed, the more developed the unborn child is and the later the possible abortion would take place. The two most common forms of testing are ¨amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling¨ (Rebouché and Rothenberg 989). Both of these tests ¨[require] extracting cells from the fetus in utero, either through the mother 's abdomen or vagina¨ (Rebouché and Rothenberg 989).
The controversy over prenatal genetic screening has become a major issue among today’s society. Prenatal genetic screening occurs during the first and second trimester which allows physicians to diagnose the fetus by examining blood or other tissue to detect abnormalities (Sagerdo). Due to the scientific advancements in today’s society, the idea of genetic screening has been taken to the next level in forming the idea of a “super baby”. In the United States alone, between sixty-five to seventy percent of women have serum screening in order to evaluate the status of the developing fetus (Sagerdo). Often, when a disease is detected due to a genetic test many parents opt to have an abortion.
o Discuss biochemical/molecular biological/physiological basis of the disease Hyperlipidemia can either be genetically inherited or caused by lifestyle habits such as obesity, unhealthy diet, and it certainly is more common in the elderly. Even though patients with this condition have no symptoms, homeostatic changes in the body such as both levels of triglycerol and cholesterol are elevated in the blood stream. The primary source of cholesterol is not from diet, but from liver synthesis. LDL receptors are important in maintaining LDL levels, also known as “bad” cholesterol.
Patricia is placed on the external fetal monitor. The fetal heart rate of baby A is noted in low 80’s, while baby B has a baseline of 120. The nurse suspects abruptio placentae and immediately telephones the physician. The physician orders the nurse to draw a stat CBC, CMP, PT, PTT, INR, blood type and cross match, and an Apt test.
Preterm births and low birth weight affect different states in the USA in a variety of ways. For example, research done in 2004 proved that preterm births are common among non-Hispanic African Americans women at 17.8 percent and least among the Asians and the Pacific Islanders women at 11.5 percent. The rate of low birthweight among non-Hispanic African Americans are also considerably high compared to the non-Hispanic white.
Some of the tests for diagnosis during pregnancy include ultrasound, amniocentesis, and an AFP (alfa-fetaprotein) test. An ultrasound is a non-invasive test if done abdominally, and oftentimes spina bifida can be seen as a result of the ultrasound. Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into the amniotic sac and a sample of amniotic fluid is obtained and tested. If the level of AFP is found to be higher than average, this could be an indication of spina bifida.
In some cases, prenatal screenings may be compulsory. While used in certain cancer trials, prenatal screening is one of the most common forms. By using minimally invasive fetal genetic sampling techniques such as chorionic villus sampling, the possibility of variety of conditions may be ascertained according to Binns and Hsu. Screened conditions range from incurable, life threatening diseases to developmental impairments. With this information, a mother may opt to abort the child.
The results of this test say if the patient is lacking few vitamins. It also identifies what type of disease the patient might have. For example, this patient has pernicious anemia which indicates problems with iron deficiency. Creatinine and BUN relates to the Kidneys and shows if the kidneys are still being able to filter or work properly. Low calcium indicates bone problem, hear failure, and problems with the kidneys, ((Pagana, K., Pagana, T.,
In the study, it emphasizes how high cholesterol impacts the health of rats with a decrease in ATP production, increase of lactate levels, and increase of oxidative stress in myocardium, and this increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, known as ischemic heart disease. Avoiding cholesterol completely may harm the body, because cholesterol is needed to produce cell membranes, is the precursor of for the synthesis of hormones and Vitamin D. Part of maintaining these levels is by performing fasting lipoprotein profile test that checks for the LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and the levels of triglycerides in the blood. These levels should remain in the standard ranges based on gender, weight, age, etc. The treatment of this condition will not be discussed in the study, but one may choose to improve their diet or count on drugs specifically HMG CoA reductase inhibitors that reduce the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the
The article, “Prenatal Tests puts Down Syndrome in Hard Focus,” begins with a soft lead. It focuses on Sarah Itoh, a child with Down syndrome. I found this to be effective because of the nature of this article, it is talking about a child with Down syndrome and it shows off a little bit of her personality. The nut graph of the article comes after the author describes that Sarah likes school and how Math was hard, but it is getting better. I believe the nut graph is:
Elevated low-density lipoproteins or LDL cholesterol is strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.48 The majority of the cholesterol in the blood is contained in low-density lipoprotein which transports cholesterol from the liver to nerve tissues, cell membranes, and other cells for metabolic purposes. The cholesterol in atherosclerotic plague is derived mainly from excess LDL cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein is believed to function as a retrieval service, removing cholesterol from the circulation to the liver for excretion.48 For this reason, HDL is often referred to as the “healthy” or “good” cholesterol. Accumulation of more and more fatty substances in the walls of the arteries result in stenosis (occlusion) of the lumen of the blood vessel that decreases the blood flow volume. The rough surface created by atherosclerotic plague increases the probability of a thrombosis because the platelets are designed to aggregate or attach to the rough surfaces.