Nurses are continually faced with the challenges of the treating pain. To ensure the best quality of care for patients, nurses need effective knowledge, skills, and attitudes to address pain issues (Stanley & Pollard, 2013). Despite the findings and recommendation of substantial past research, nurses continue to demonstrate inadequate knowledge of pain assessment and pain management interventions (Wells et al., 2008). From reports in the literature, knowledge about pain management and attitudes which underpin nurses’ pain management decisions are problematic. Nurses’ knowledge of the mechanism of pain, pain assessment and pharmacological and non-pharmacological management are essential components in promoting positive patient outcomes (Al Shaer et al., 2011).
The three dimensions of pain assessment instruments are also subject to misinterpretation. Healthy patients have difficulty on a line or a numerical value to meet their pain as a point of conceptualization the intensity of the pain. Difficulties in interpretation are rare when verbal rating scale is used. In addition, the use of certain words cannot be understood by patients or little interest in the individual descriptions of pain (D'Arcy, 2011). There is unlikely to support the coherence between the reported pain levels, for example, a patient may report pain as a numerical rating scale (NRS) and request analgesia.
In older children and adolescents with subtrochanteric femur fractures, surgical fixation has become the treatment of choice, because unsatisfactory radiographic alignment and limb length discrepancy frequently result from nonoperative treatment.4 Furthermore, prolonged traction and spica casting become increasingly difficult in older children and requirea longer in-hospital stay and return to ambulation.4 Several surgical treatment options have been described for pediatric subtrochanteric femur fractures, including intramedullary nailing with elastic or rigid nails, external fixation, and open reduction internal fixation.3–8 Although elastic intramedullary nailing has shown promising results, rigid nailing has been found to carry an increased risk for avascular necrosis of the femoral head in this patient population.4,6,8 Furthermore, given the high loads present at the subtrochanteric level, plating using constructs without angular stability frequently leads to limb length discrepancy and loss of reduction.4 Plate constructs with angular stability such as blade plates and locked plates have however been shown to yield satisfactory
In nurse’s perspective, the poor and inconsistent of pain assessment can lead to unrelieved pain and reduce patient mobility, resulting in complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, and pneumonia (Ed. Caltorn, 1997). Postsurgical complications related to inadequate pain management will affect the length of hospitalization; the risk of readmissions, and increase the cost care of treatment. Somehow, a poor documentation of current status pain assessment will delay the intervention and responses to the care plan (Gordon, 2005). Thus, to overcome this situation in clinical practice, The American Pain Society (2005), created the phrase “Pain: the fifth vital sign” to increased awareness of the important in pain management
In addition, clients with sensitive skin tend to bleed easily and this will result in a poor result. Who should perform microblading? Search for qualified or skilled technicians who are licensed by the Society of Permanent Cosmetic Professionals (SPCP) or American Academy of Micropigmentation. These experts possess many years of expertise and have excelled in an industry or board approved exam.
It is defined only by symptoms and the symptomatic triad rarely occurs simultaneously in one patient and due to overlapping stomatitis. Symptomatically, chronic pain conditions like traumatic/inflammatory/immune-mediated stomatitis or orofacial pain disorders present similar to BMS. Foremost it is essential to discriminate between primary and secondary BMS. Thus a thorough case history and a careful examination are the key to successful diagnosis. Systematic evaluation of masticatory system including clinical assessment of occlusion, dentition, temporomandibular joint status and masticatory muscles is essential to rule out possible joint disorders.
Blount et al., 2009; Inal & Kelleci, 2012b; Leahy et al., 2008; Uman, Chambers, McGrath, & Kisely 2006, the common and significant sources of pain is applying needle in medical procedures such as venipuncture and immunization. Cumming (1996) noted that children’s pain primary source is intravenous catheter insertion but Young (2005) states that placement of intravenous line is second and disease related is the most common source of pain. It’s also been said that needle related procedure in the hospital setting is the most terrifying procedure a child may encounter because it commonly results in pain and distress (Hart & Bossert, 1994). Meanwhile, reports showed that pain does not only bring a
INTRODUCTION Wound infections are one of the bad complications in patients undergoing surgeries. Consequently, infections of different organs or tissues that visible to surgeons may lead to significant increment of postoperative morbidity and mortality beside prolongation of hospital stay.1 It has been well documented that eradication of wound infection resulted in significant increment of patient comfort and decreased medical costs.2 Onche and Adedeji3 stated that Staphylococcus aureus is the predominate cause of surgical wound and nosocomial infections. Currently, the antibiotic drug resistance is a fast growing concern in wound infection management beside the risk of impairment of wound healing, bacteraemia, or even sepsis.4 National Nosocomial
Such phenomenon is real. This isn’t a joke. Many people who are older than 30 years old felt like being executed, as soon as they were sitting on the dental chair. Decades ago, we should admit that we were troubled about the pain that it would suffer when the doctor started to operate the chair, even if he or she was only changing the position.
Being a part of this field requires orthodontists to have good visions and good hand and eye coordination. The advantage of orthodontics is that most orthodontists do not work for anyone, but themselves. In order to be successful, orthodontists have business experience. There are good employment projects for orthodontics. They get to help patients get straighter teeth and fix the alignment of the teeth.
If the heel-cord is over lengthened the individual would start walking on their heels, which is worse that walking on tip-toes (Orthopaedic Surgery, 2014). Another type of surgery is called Arthodesis. This is used to correct flat feet. This is where the surgeon fuses the three main joint located in the back of the feet to strengthen the feet, correct the shape, and relieve pain (NHS Choices,