In order for a member to be eligible to receive benefits related to substance abuse, his or her physician must determine that treatment is medically necessary. Aetna uses the Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) approach when considering a member’s eligibility for cocaine rehab and detox coverage. SBIRT is a program designed to assist physicians in determining medical
2.1: Explain the importance of recording possible signs or symptoms of dementia in an individual in line with agreed ways of working? The Impact of early diagnosis allows the individual with dementia as well as their family members and friends to accept help so they can understand and adjust with the individual with dementia. This helps individual statute of their other conditions that may have similar symptoms to dementia and that may be treatable before it gets very serious e.g. depression, chest and urinary tract infection which is also known as UTI. This may also help statute out the other possible causes of confusion e.g.
Through patient care process, pharmacists connect drug therapy problems and goals of therapy together to make suitable care plans for each individual patient. Pharmacists try their best to help patients get effective drugs, reduce adverse drug reactions and feel compliance about drugs. Pharmacists will also follow up the patients in order to get better outcomes.
According to the existing non-clinical and clinical studies for abiraterone acetate drugs, such as Zytiga, a risk management plan should be filed in details of safety concern, agreed pharmacovigilance activities, and agreed risk minimization activities. For instance, the major identified risks for abiraterone drugs are hypertension, hypokalaemia, fluid retention, hepatotoxicity, and cardiac disorders. When these side effects occur, company should follow the pharmacovigilance routine, including long-term trial extensions and follow-up with reporters in order to determine the next action to minimize the risk activities. If the adverse reactions are anticipated as pharmacodynamic consequences, actions such as co-administration with other drugs, reduction of doses, and guidance provided by physicians will step in to minimize or eliminate the side effects (Kluetz et al., 2013). Other potential risks, such as osteoporosis, cataract, drug-drug interaction, and increased exposure with food, are also observed in certain populations and the risk minimize actions should follow the risk management plan same as
Furthermore, the studies measured different outcomes among the participants with the potential for respondent bias whenever researchers utilize subjective measurement techniques. Taking Valerian concurrently with other medications, depressants, and nutritional supplements might have additive therapeutic and adverse effects. There should be a clear indication of the information, users notified and advised accordingly regards its usage with other medications or dietary
The world population has reached 7 billion people. Of these, an estimated 230 million people or 5% of the world’s adult population abused drugs at least once in 2010 according to United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2011). Approximately 27 million (0.6% of the world adult population) are problem drug users or drug addicts (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2011). Drug addicts require treatment. In 2009, 4.5 million people worldwide were receiving treatment for problems related to drug abuse, though the need is much higher.
She also has chronic hypertension and is on chronic medication. The patient also has recurrent urinary tract infections. This case should provide a better understanding of how these conditions coexist and what their effects are as well as how management of these conditions should be approached which will help advance our knowledge in the pre-hospital setting. It may provide important information on how these conditions overlap and interlink with each other. It may also provide important information on the endocrine system which will help in that specific field of medicine.
Analgesics are required to manage acute or chronic pain. The nociceptive pains are managed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Normally pain produced during any injury in road accidents, rail accidents, tsunami, flood, terrorism and war are acute severe pain and an analgesic is required to manage them .The preferred analgesic is an opioid. Morphine, a proto type of opioid has various adverse effects like physical dependence, constipation, vomiting, respiratory depression. Among the opioids, buprenorphine is used for the development of an analgesic autoinjector which has the advantage among other opioids like better pharmacological effect, lesser physical dependence and ceiling effect of respiratory depression (Rosenblum et al,2008)
I will need to observe the medication administration record, Control drugs record, generic & brand names documents and risk assessment documents. This is important in order to avoid errors while dispensing a medication. Knowing all this beforehand will enable me know the type of medication written on the prescription and where to get them from (fridge, cupboard or the shelves). This knowledge will promote and help to maintain independence in the appropriate way to handle prescription.
Addiction Pharmacology “Neuroscience reveals some of the most important conditions that are necessary for behaviour and awareness” Taills R. Evaluate this statement in relation to addiction looking specifically at psychostimulants. Ajomon Joseph The neurobiology of addiction Introduction Neuroscience is started to reveal the neurochemical changes that occur within particular functional regions of the brain that are responsible for the behaviour in addiction, so neuroscience and motivational impairment that require treatment. Our cognitive abilities enables us to quickly identify which activities are worth pursuing in our environment . In addiction , drug use become over –learned because repeated drug use can over activities
The efficacy of appropriate treatment for addiction disorder and substance abuse may be determine by drug and alcohol counselors, primary healthcare providers, social workers, and others. Therefore, it is necessary for competent and those properly trained to utilize the necessary tools needed for proper assessments, diagnosis, treatment planning and future referrals. Careful selection on these instruments may be influenced by cultural, race, and gender (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Furthermore, counselors or other clinicians would also need to consider the reliability and validity these instruments prior to selection. Two assessment tools The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is a well-versed instrument I resonate with for addiction, because of its developmental history.
It was however very helpful in providing me with an understanding of how drugs taken by humans especially for the purpose of mental health affect different areas of the body and the anticipated side effects of each. Through having such knowledge also, I am better able to work with the clients I serve in monitoring the progress of the therapeutic effects of the drugs they are taking during treatment. Additionally, by familiarizing self with the different classes of drugs, will allow me to become more vigilant in recognizing the purpose the drug/s are being taken by clients immediately after hearing or seeing
Treatment seeks to create a continuum of care by recognizing that different drug use patterns must guide treatment strategies. Since there is a chronic relapse pattern with addictions treatment, abstinence is not always the only measure of success. Harm reduction involves establishing a hierarchy of achievable goals which, when taken step by step, can lead to a healthier life for drug users and a healthier community for everyone. The [enforcement] policy says that the VPD [police agencies] will continue to target street and middle-level drug traffickers and producers. Police will be guided by an individual’s behaviour in determining whether or not to lay drug or alcohol possession charges.