Margaret Kovera, a leading authority in the research of lineup administrations, there are several verbal cues and non-verbal cues that can influence a witness’s decision making with regards to a suspect identification. As Dr. Margaret Kovera has a social psychology background, her research focuses more on the social interactions in lineups as opposed to the usual cognitive approach to studying eyewitness identification. In Dr. Kovera’s interview she discusses what is referred to as the experimenter expectancy effect whereby experimenters may behave in such a manner that influences the behaviours of the participants in a study to fit the hypothesis of the experimenter. This premise correlates with Dr. Garry Wells view of lineups being experiments and when conducting a lineup, we should aim to protect suspects against mistaken identifications by trying to minimize or eliminate the types of biases that we try to remove when we are conducting scientific experiments. As Dr. Margaret Kovera exemplifies in her interview, one of the biggest issues in lineup procedures that result in false identifications is the various sources of contamination introduced to the witness by the lineup administrator, which ultimately parallels with the experimenter expectancy effect.
Negotiation and Social Decision-Making Assignment 4 a. The processes of social categorisation and social identification could be harmful for collective interests if the person is unable to make his/her membership in the collective category salient, which could possibly lead to the lack of cooperative behaviour towards collective unit. This might occur when the person’s levels of categorisation in another domain (either subgroup or single individual) is the most salient. In subgroup categorisation, a person might develop a high identification with their subgroup and consequently, he/she allocates more resources toward actions that solely reward their subgroup while abandoning the needs of larger society (collective unit). Similarly, if the individual categorisation is the most salient, the person might possibly show less concern about their collective interest compared to his/her personal interest.
This shows that self-efficacy can vary in different environmental and life situations the individual is in. The authors did not consider how external factors might affect self-efficacy. The context in which the study is being held will affect the results. For example, self-efficacy beliefs can vary by race and ethnicity (Marra & Bogue, 2006). Test results may prove otherwise if people from a different race or ethnic background were
The use of multiple intelligences is in agreement with Hoffman and Frost (2006, p. 39) who also recognise social intelligence as a factor contributing to leadership success. Perhaps this observation explains why research shows that traditional intelligence does not always contribute to leadership positively (Riggio, 2010, p.1; Shabnam et. al., 2011, p. 318). Also Ronthy argues that the personality tests of the 1960s were not ‘fit for purpose’ since they were primarily intended to diagnose psychological disorders and were not intended to be a predictor of a high IQ (Ronthy, 2014, p. 52). In some cases, intelligence may actually inhibit leadership effectiveness, as highlighted in Fiedler’s cognitive resources theory (as cited in Riggio, 2010, p. 1), when a leader is less likely to perform in a time of crisis due to their focus on problem solving rather than the task at hand.
Why do we conform? Take time to carefully consider each question being asked below and respond in well developed, complete sentences. Definitions: Social Norm: expectations about what behavior, thoughts, or feelings are appropriate within a given group, within a given context Conformity: yielding to, or “going along with,” a perceived social norm. Is conformity a good thing, or a bad thing? Why?
Have you ever wondered what influences caused you to turn out the way you did? Whether it’s your environment or your family or other attributions, values seems to have the most impact by teaching what is right and wrong. Your environment is what you grow up seeing on a daily and social norms are what you grow up thinking is acceptable by society 's standards. An individual 's environment and social norms have the most influence one’s perspective because it results in one to question their acceptance or belong within society and persons often do what they see or what they think will get them accepted by society faster. A person 's environment can have an influence on the way someone turns out because your environment is something that you are involved in and constantly coming in contact with.
What then is social influence? Influence is the ability of a leader to communicate ideas, gain acceptance, and motivate followers to support and execute the ideas through change. In psychology, social influence is defined as the process through which people make genuine changes to their behaviours and feelings as a result of relations with others who are seen to be similar, enviable or experts (Rashotte, 2006). 2.2 Sources of Social Influence The sources of social influence include family, friends, music, movie, past/present events, peers, race, class/status, fashion, Facebook, education, religion, coworkers, fraternities, what people think, what people do, what people say, and what people do not say. 2.3 Types of Social Influence There are five types of social influence in leadership.
Social Implications of Behaviorism Behaviorism first started during the late 19th century and early 20th century when introspective psychology was extremely popular at the time. Introspective psychologists used experiments that focused primarily on the consciousness of the individual, or their inner thoughts, and John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner were among the people disagreed with its practices1. They believed that the mind cannot be observed objectively, and thus behaviorism was born. Behaviorism in Social Interactions The primary keywords associated with behaviorism are: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and stimulus-response2. Classical conditioning was researched extensively by Ivan Pavlov, and included an unconditioned stimulus,
Social Norms are the somewhat unwritten rules about how to act or how to behave. They provide us with an expected idea of how to behave in a particular social group or culture. They are the accepted standards of behaviors in particular groups, which may range from family, to friends, schoolmates, workmates, and other citizens. Because of these norms and their underlying implication, the people who do not follow them are shunned or ignored. Therefore, sociologists have given the definition, “Social norms are rules developed by a group of people that specify how people must, should, may, should not, and must not behave in various situations.” According to American sociologist William Graham Sumner, there are some norms labeled as “mores” which encompasses all norms that are necessary in a society.
49). As seen from the various definitions, the variability in the ways in which “social” attributes have been conceptualized and operationalized has resulted in a less coherent literature. While these definitions differ in focus and specificity, two common themes emerged. Indeed, most conceptualizations in the research literature include two major components. The first component is associated with accurately sensing and identifying social cues in others, and understanding the complex dynamics of social situations while the second component is related to how an individual effectively interact with others.