Policies executed in the 1960s as part of the “War on Poverty” established the foundation for a significant shift in welfare policy in two ways: first, by launching a vigorous private-public partnership and, second, by explaining economic inequality as the result of individual attributes and psychology (Bertram, 2007; Morris, 2004; O’Connor, 2009; Weir, 1992). Johnson’s “poverty project” formally became the War on Poverty on January 8 when it was declared in his first State of the Union address. The roots of that “War on Poverty” are lengthy and goes back the Kennedy administration’s committee stance on Juvenile Delinquency and trial programs related to social science initiatives directed by something known as “Opportunity Theory.” "Social
A landmark United States Supreme Court case in which declared the separation of public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The fact that Dr. Franklin “earned his Master’s degree from Harvard University in 1936 and his doctorate five years in 1941” (Journal of Blacks in Higher Education) is an example that the he believed his mother’s words that he was not inferior because of the color of his skin. Franklin rose above the cruelty with his life ambition to influence our nation to be tolerance of all people regardless of their skin color. “Dr. Franklin was deeply involved in the painful debates that helped reshape America’s racial identity, working with the Rev.
The statics shown have proven that high school dropouts add to the issues already occurring. Decreasing the rate of high school dropouts can decrease the rates of issues caused by them. These issues are forgone national income, forgone tax revenues for the support of government services, increased demand for social services, increased crime and antisocial behavior, and poorer levels of health (Christle, Jolivette, and Nelson). Although students can lose the motivation to finishing school, creating programs and laws to help reengage them academically can help prevent them from future health risks or poor
The public school to prison pipeline was examined in the literature review through zero-tolerance policies and the effects it has played on graduation rates. Zero-tolerance policies have dramatically increased students being recommended to the court system according to the literature review. The literature review has shown a need for school districts to examine zero-tolerance policies and the negative effects that it has caused on students. Fran Silverman (2005) discusses students being punished under zero-tolerance and says, “The students were disciplined under their school’s zero tolerance policy and some advocates are saying these codes of conduct have become so strict that schools are turning into criminal justice systems, or worse, jailhouses” (pg. 54).
The challenge of educational reform is not only an educational issue, but also a political one. The idea that the American education system is broken is not new. The American people have been told time and again that we need to catch up. The message and fear this sends is that our American students are behind the rest of the world. Since 1957 with the “Missile Gap”(Zhao, 2009, p. 19), Americans have been playing the educational reform game.
As former US president Clinton said, “If it means that the schoolrooms will be more orderly, more disciplined, and that our young people will learn to evaluate themselves by what they are on the inside instead of what they 're wearing on the outside, then our public schools should be able to require their students to wear school uniforms.” WORKS CITED Jacobson, A. (2014, September 12). Pro & Con Arguments: “Should students have to wear uniforms?”. Retrieved from http://school-uniforms.procon.org/ Clinton, B. (1996, February 25).
Bias and Alternatives in Psychological Testing. Journal of Negro Education, 49(3), 352-352. Retrieved December 8, 2014, from JSTOR. Jencks, C., Smith, M., Acland, H., & Bane, M. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and schooling in America.
Racial Disparities Michelle Alexander, author of The New Jim Crow, points out that segregation transitioned from having to break through racial barriers to punitive laws designed to control African American communities. During the civil rights movement the unemployment rates increased among the African American population, which was the same time the population of young fifteen to twenty four year old age group spiked, results from the “baby boom” generation. (Michelle Alexander, 2010: 47) This was the reporting age group that caused crime in America according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. (Michelle Alexander, 2010) The criminal-justice system focused on African American communities that had fallen behind during the rise of unemployment.
Despite numerous reforms over the decades, the public education system has faced various criticisms in relations to its effectiveness. Many taxpayers, business leaders, educators and government officials have criticized public schools’ less than optimal performance and the failure of schools to address the needs of the diverse American society (Nelson, Palonsky & McCarthy, 2010). This paper examines some of the major reasons why schools are such a focus for criticism and reform efforts. It will achieve this by discussing the inequality of opportunity, bureaucratic systems, achievement-based outcome, privatization of public schools, reforms and the impact of globalization on education. Over the years, public schools in the US are required to provide quality education for every child, regardless of race, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.
Personal factors as well include poor self-esteem, feelings of academic incompetence, poor relationships with students, and gang involvement. Truants generally report less attachment to school and have less satisfactory experiences at school, than non-truants. The link between truancy and dropout have been demonstrated by a number of studies that show that dropouts may begin having attendance problems as early as 1st grade (Sheldon, 2002). Students who skip significant numbers of classes often to earn credit for those classes either because they also neglect homework and fail tests, or because of mandatory attendance requirements set by the schools. Truancy, therefore, is a clear warning that student may drop-out.
A study was created and sampled a Texas middle school. “The Breaking Schools’ Rules study revealed that excluding students was an extreme yet common practice, with 54% of all students experiencing at least one in-school suspension and 31% of all students spending on average two days at home at least once in their school career” (51). This also discovered the increased five times and three times more likelihood of a dropout from students who received exclusion from school. From the Texas middle school study it was found out that 97% of student exclusion were done privately and targeted students of color. It has been understood that defiance has become the biggest contributor to
Since the end of the Civil War, whites have economically oppressed blacks through “Government programs that gave white families a leg us…either exclud[ing] or shortchang[ing] African Americans” (Starkman 32). While conventional wisdom suggests that peoples’ wealth should be based on their income, Starkman suggests otherwise. Incomes fluctuate, while assets, which are a more net yield of wealth from even past generations, stay relatively stable. When comparing assets instead of income as wealth, there is a jarring disparity; whites have a $236,000 advantage over blacks, even when adjusted for income levels, and still growing. In essence, assets are the key to wealth in America, as the Shapiro study at the University of Michigan found.
Bush passed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), an reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) under Lyndon B. Johnson administration’s War of Poverty. The No Child Left Behind Act requires states to administer an annual assessment, and ensure that schools are making Adequate Yearly Progress, a set of measuring tool to determine if schools are successful. One of the primary goals of the No Child Left Behind Act is to close the students’ achievement gaps by 2014 through the four main pillars: stronger accountability for results, more flexibility for states, more choices for parents, and proven education methods. (U.S Department of Education, 2004) However, the NCLB is exacerbating the gaps with its strong emphasis on the use of standardized testing as a measurement. With NCLB’s strong emphasis on standardized testing to measure student learning, teacher quality, and the achievement gaps, it pressured the schools to narrow its curriculum, teach to the test (Jackson Sr., 2011), and more importantly, “limited the productivity of critical thinkers, and innovators of America.” (Proconor) Teachers are forced to teach to the test to meet the requirements, and focus their teaching on the materials that are on the test.