President Lyndon B. Johnson's Administration Head Start

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Conceptualized under President Lyndon B. Johnson 's administration, Head Start began as a legacy Project to maintain the victory on the "War on Poverty" started by the late President John F. Kennedy (Zigler & Styfco, 2010, p. 25-26). In its early, and mid years, it maintained a higher percentage of African Americans from "lower- income" communities, than whites and Hispanics from the same. Yet in the new millennium, Head Start gained more white and Hispanic new comers (Currie, J., 1995). Does Head Start Make A Difference? http://www.econ.ucla.edu/people/papers/Currie/Currie14.pdf). According to Edward Zigler, one of the program 's founders, and Sally Styfco, the "war was officially launched with the passage of the Economic Opportunity Act…show more content…
ESEA also included "the provisions for school library resources, textbooks and other instructional materials, supplementary educational centers and services which sought [seek] to educate in remedial instruction and the handicapped, educational research, training and grants" (“Elementary and Secondary Education Act”, 1965). After these implementations of new programs in the late 1960s, such as the support of migrant students, Congress noticed an improper use of federal funding among public schools receiving government aid (Klein, A. (2015, March 31), The Nation 's Main K-12 Law: A Timeline of the ESEA http://www.edweek.orgiew/section/multimedia/the-nations-main-k-12-law-a-timeline.html), and from that point on, the impact of funding began to slowly decrease. By renewal of ESEA from 1979 to 1981, "federal spending on K through 12 education lagged" while a new birth of standardized testing and school improvement plans began (Klein, A. (2015, March 31). The Nation 's Main K-12 Law: A Timeline of the ESEA http://www.edweek.org(ew/section/multimedia/the-nations-main-k-12-law-a-timeline.htm). By the early 1990s President Bill Clinton signed the "Improving America 's School Act" which called for states to develop "standards and aligned testing for all students"…show more content…
With the scandal starting in 2008, America realized that this indignity thrived under George W. Bush’s presidency. The administration which provided the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) within schools. NCLB was President George W. Bush 's reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1964 (Kahlenburg, 2008, p. 1). Those investigating the effectiveness of it have suggested that the Act encouraged the removal and expulsion of "challenging" students through strict performance standards (Kim et al. 2012, p. 25). This criticism suggests the involvement of NCLB as a force perpetuating the "School to Prison Pipeline" connection. Other criticisms of NCLB include: the standardization and pressures of testing, the effort to privatize education, and its lack of effectiveness within the classroom due to the pressures of rigid federal expectations. Studies suggest that the reform did not lower drop-out rates, but put substantial pressures on schools. In Meir and Wood 's Many Children Left Behind, in Houston, Texas, where "much of the NCLB legislation is based... the district claimed a dropout rate of 1.5%" when, in fact, at one particular high school, about 25% of the students left during the 2001 - 2002 school year, and were labeled as continuing their education or going back to their home country; although, they had not claimed of doing so (Meir and Woods,

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