The conservative factions emphasised that only Confucianism could be accepted by the Chinese. The pro-reform factions held that archaic laws such as adultery should not be regulated by a modern Chinese criminal code and should be resolved in other ways even though it ran against Confucianism9. It is significant to Note that the Japanese legal experts of the time, undergoing their own process of modernisation, agreed with the pro-reform factions, asserting that the line between individual ethics and social ethics must be drawn in a modern China10. Cixi eventually grew disdain for western powers and allied with the anti-western and xenophobic Boxer Rebellion. The defeat of China and Empress Dowager and the slow decline of state capacity, blockaded Chinas progressive advancement towards modernity11
However, this idea was by no means a result of his backgrounds of living as a member of oversea “Chinese” household in Singapore. Although he was in the privileged status of the eldest one of the Strait-born Chinese (baba), he had been instructed in English, and forced to abandon his Chinese culture before he went to school (p. 162). Likewise, he had learnt Chinese in Kokkien dialect, not Mandarin. On the contrary, his idea on social management was gradually shaped by the growing admiration of Mandarin and Chinese knowledge on culture and philosophy when he had entered the adulthood (p. 165). This admiration might come into the existence during the Japanese Occupation on which Chinese-educated citizens seriously opposed Japan’s military.
In the West,it is made up of Daoism and Buddhism as sources of environment-friendly values (Girardot et al., 2001; Tucker and Williams, 1997). But these traditions, though influential throughout Chinese history, have always been minority streams in China. Daoism and Buddhism have influenced classical poetry and painting more than they have guided how the majority of Chinese have lived their day-to-day lives (see Elvin,
The Chinese before modern time viewed their country as the “Tianxia” and others as barbarian. After forging Nanjing treaties, the Chinese started to identify their county as one of the nations in the world. In other words, modern China is the most impressive period to today’s Chinese people in terms of emotional aspect as well as gave much of the credit for being ROC. Therefore, I strongly agree that historical consciousness of modern China can help to understand how Chinese has identified themselves as well as become aware of the outside
Mao’s policies regarding land appealed to the peasants which made up a large percentage of the population. In 1949 with the support of the peasants, the Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek and his followers to Taiwan and the Chinese Communist Party established the People's Republic of China. Around 1966 Mao decided that not enough people were supporting his government, so he decided that the country needed a Cultural Revolution. He got college students and young people involved in destroying the past. They tore down architecture that was representative of the past.
China has a collectivist culture. Individualist cultures, such as those of the United States and Western Europe, emphasize personal achievement regardless of the expense of group goals, resulting in a strong sense of competition. Collectivist cultures, such as those of China, Korea, and Japan, emphasize family and work group goals above individual needs or desires. But Chinese collectivism not only includes the relationship between the individuals and the family, but also between the individuals and the country, the nation, the society and other individuals. This difference can a bit explained by the communist state of the country, with the communist party that promotes patriotic spirit and collectivism but mostly by Confucianism that strongly values group orientation.
The Han dynasty adopted the Confucian ideology which was about virtue, respect, obedience (filial piety), and moderation in all things. This ideology was able to cover some of the authoritarian ways and policies of the previous dynasty. Although the Qin regime tried to destroy and repress history and documents by burning, their short reign did not allow complete destruction but it greatly affected the cultural expression that was built by the dynasties before (Fercility 2017). However, the Han regime was able to revive the culture and vestiges. The Han were very good record keepers and noted even the music, rituals, techniques, songs and instruments used.
Zhang noticed that there’s a complicated rapport between the state and the people that he could convey by making use of Cultural Revolution. China is like a family, a big family. Everyone must depend on each other and to face each other. This was the issue he paid attention to, and gradually, it became more and more linked to people’s states of mind and less to the Cultural Revolution. Therefore, he painted this series and those of them are about family photographs.
Vivian Okafor Asian Politics 23rd February, 2018. Dr. Stephen B. Herschler. Comparative Nationalism- Sukarno and Sun Yatsen Due to the political and colonial situation of the 1800s, there was a wave of nationalism making its way through Asian countries. To further go into this, I will be looking into two countries and their prominent nationalistic leaders. Sukarno and Sun Yatsen and their nationalistic revolution in Indonesia and China respectively.
They use the privileges granted by the policies as an umbrella for the crime. However, some people pursue the idea that it is conducive to maintain unity and national stability; the privileges which are granted by the policy can consolidate China’s sense of unity. Not only were the minority extremists grateful, but also the support of anti-Chinese Western forces has intensified. This policy, combined with the actual situation and regional autonomy, has increased the gap between Han Chinese and the ethnic minorities. It deliberately emphasizes the nationalization of religious beliefs in the ethnic minority areas, and also encourages narrow nationalism or separatism in ethnic minority areas which has caused them to become more anti-Chinese than ever.