It should provide them with feedback on their skill progression, motivate them to improve and contribute greatly to their overall development. It also guides the teacher, showing them both how and what the children are learning. This, in turn, enables them to adjust their lessons to account for all students in the classroom and self-reflect on their teaching practices for future planning. Given the wide
The home and school coming together is critical for student improvement and success. Portfolio assessment gives active participation by describing the projected outcomes, advantages, characteristics, and format of portfolio assessment, it also can help parents begin to understand the process and purposes. Teachers who invite parents to participate in to help with the portfolio assessment brings a positive efforts of their children help and parents also developed a better understanding of the process of developing their child to be at a mastery level. It helps parents appreciate the strengths and growth of which children have developed as well as to better understand the need for the support and various kinds of activities and instruction you are providing when it comes to portfolio
They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning. Generally, students judge their own work against a given criteria, provide information on how they can improve on that work in future and then grade their work. When the word “formative” is used in conjunction with assessment or evaluation, it connotes an improvement process while the word “summative” is used to describe a decision making process. 2.6 Distinctions between Self-assessment and Self-evaluation Assessment and Evaluation are necessary and complementary in education. Educators use assessment and evaluation to help their students build lifelong learning skills.
To apply formative assessment effectively in the classroom, teachers have to know about formative assessment principles so that they can optimize the opportunities for gathering evidence. In so doing, it helps improve students’ learning process. Black and William (1998a) “set out four main headings for formative assessment practice: sharing learning goals, questioning, self/ peer assessment and feedback”. o Sharing learning goals: teachers give students an opportunity to get involved in what they are learning through discussing and deciding the criteria for success, which they can then use to recognize proof of improvement. Hence, information about learning objectives as well as success criteria needs to be presented in clear, explicit language which students can understand.
(2003) states encouraging pupils to share their opinions about the strategies used in class, enables pupils to take greater ownership of their learning, encourages self-assessment and empowers pupils to become active learners. Evaluating feedback from students and teachers can help develop the culture of teaching and learning. Chapman and Sammons (2013) expresses that student feedback provides a rich context which can be used to improve the quality of education. OECD’s (2013) report agrees that pupil’s opinion can encourage self-evaluation at a whole-school
The answer to the question how to evaluate heavily depends on what should be evaluated. Teachers must ensure that teaching, learning, assignments, assessment and feedback are constructively aligned, and demonstrate the evidence of student’s achievement of the intended learning outcomes. Figure 1 shows how learning outcomes, evidence of achievement, assessment criteria and feedback linked with each other. Hence, based on how well learning outcomes have been achieved by a learner, assessment along with the feedback should be given to a student. In the following paragraphs we will discuss various formats and types of assessments.
Differentiation, with respect to instruction, means tailoring it to meet individual needs of the students. Teachers can differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction. Teachers differentiate the four classroom elements based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile. (Tomlinson 2000). Differentiated instruction can be known as an organizing framework in teaching and learning which calls for a major restructuring in the classroom and syllabus, if done in the proper way, its benefits will transgress the costs.
Bloom’s Taxonomy provides an important framework for teachers to use to focus on higher order thinking. By providing a hierarchy of levels, this taxonomy can assist teachers in designing performance tasks, making questions for discussing with learners, and providing feedback on student work. This resource is divided into different levels each with Keywords that exemplify the level and questions that focus on that same critical thinking level. Questions for Critical Thinking can be used in the classroom to develop all levels of thinking within the cognitive domain. The results will be improved attention to detail, increased comprehension and prolonged problem solving skills.
Also, by providing students with instant feedback they can more actively engage the learners in classroom activities and shape their future learning. Formative assessment is now described in literature as ongoing or continuous assessment, the primary goal of which is to help students develop. It encompasses all kinds of classroom interactions, short quizzes and progress test, interviews, student presentations and projects, written assignments, to name just a few (Shepard, 2006). Students are further encouraged to monitor their own work by reflecting upon the learning goals established by the teacher and trying to identify the
Teachers who collectively exchange teaching strategies, help each other in solving both teacher and student conflicts, supports each other in acquiring and applying new knowledge on teaching, share common practice to attain school goals and aim, and share common expectations in the execution of their functions increase their performance inside the classroom. Teaching effectiveness involves deep understanding of the subject matter, learning theory and student differences, planning, classroom instructional strategies, knowing individual students, and assessment of student understanding and proficiency with learning outcomes (Barry, 2010). Thus, teachers will increase teaching effectiveness if they have the ability to reflect and collaborate with colleagues. Teachers can also increase their teaching effectiveness if they exert extra effort in doing their teaching functions. Teacher’s extra effort is demonstrated when they bring home papers to check, organize lesson plan, develop and validate